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^ , 


6T. a (j6^. 

^v ■ 




O F 

Captain Chriflopher Middleton, 

I N A 

Late Voyage on Board His Majefty's Ship the 


Difcovering a North-Weft Paflage to the Wefttm, 
.American Ocean. 

In Ahswbk 

To certain Oijeliioiu and Afperfimi 


W I T H A N 

A P P E N 


The Captain's Inftmflions ; Councils tifW , ReR 
the Inferior Officers 1 Letters betwecn^^^^^^_ 
Middleton, &c. Affidavits and other VoiHTers refer'd 
to in the Captain's Attfuaers-t &c. With as much of 
the Log-Journal as relates to the Discovsry. 

The Whole as lately deli ver'd to the Lot ds Commiffioners 
of the Admiralty. 
To which ii AnnexM, 

Ad AccoirtiT of the Extraordinary DesTcei and Surprising ESeOf 
of Cold lo. HiulJMi Bof^ NaTtb-Jatnca,TtgAbtUneihK Rotal 

L«te Commander of the FpmiAcg , and F. R. S. 

Printed by and for I. Jackson in Mealh-ftritt ; Z. Maktihkau 
next I>oor to the PlayhoDfe and J.Kihniir tint Fi^amM'-firutt 
both on the Zmwp BlinJ-^^i and Jaui* £tDAi.L in 
/j^«fZt-;3rM/, Printers. M,OCC,XUV. 


-V i 

r . . 

■ • I 



/ - 

' J 'M lA '., ' ' T^; ri 1' ^ 

e O N t E N T & 

-rf/^ /o Mr. Corijett 2 

SEfffOary C6rbett'5 Le//f r /"o Ge^uin MiddQeton;- 
May 23, 1743- 
fii/r. Middtetoff J I-e 
G/>/. MiddVston'i letter to the Lords Coimiffionen 
.'of the Jdmiralty. ■■ -' ibid. 

A Succii0 Jfcomt tfl^hlitpajljfedbepwnn Mr, p--* 

tmd Capt. Middleton. 3 

Mr. D-~-'j Ol^0ms and Oapt^ Middkl»n'i. ^ii 

fwers, 13^ 

A Suomdry State of Mr. D — 'i Objtifions andCi^K 

Rliddl^ton'j ./^jto;^^j,. ^ , %2y 

JfiBances of the Contradi&iom and htconffiende^ in 

thefeveral Anfwf_rj{ to the ^^^es pri^Jed by tb^ 
, Lords CommiJJiomrs 9f the uwrnfra/^ to form of 
■ Capt. Middleton'* Q^jCTi, &c. ^ 

A P P E N D t % 

I. T^be Captain's In^ri0ionsfor fhf V^^g^* ' f^% 
Viy^he Lords Comimffim' ^rderpflfiscj 29,174?. 64 
JIJ. Hudfon's Bay Gfw^a;^^^^ 

V of May the ^otify iy4i. ^ i^/i/, 

Wi A Council held on board the Furi^ce, Auguft 

1741. V 65 

y,.^ Council held at Fort Cburchill^Mar, 21, 1741 ^a 

VI. VII. A Council held on l>ofirdthe Fuirmce, Ju^ 

j[2, 1742. 46. 

yill. The Lieutenant's Report July 27, 1742. 67 
iX. Tbe Captain's Order ^ July 27, 1742. ihid^ 

X . ?i&e Lieut manfs aad Majier's R^rt^ Augoft i, 

1742. .68 

^yj. A Council held OfH hoard the Furnace, Auguft 8» 

1742, 69 

A 2 XII-:^ 

/5~ a (j6~ 

^ . ■ , ' M S 

tr I ND I C A t ION 

• • ; I * 

•.':''. ■■ ■"■•,'■ ■'■■ Q F^ij. H E • ' . 

€ 0:mdmc t 

O F 

Captain Cirijlopher Middle ton, 

In a late Voyage on Board 1;4» Majefty's Ship 4;h^ 
Furnace, on a Difc^very of a. Nortb^Jfijsfi 
Pajfage to the Weftern AfiericbA Ocean^ &:(?. 

-^. -■ . : • . •. ■, ' 


^' SIR, j^«ifri//y-q^, 2j<|jMfr, 1743*-: 

R. u^ 12 rHI7 i? DOBBS having Ikid before my Lordt 

Commiffioners of the Aiva'mlty, Obje^ons to yout 
Condaft in your late Voyage in (he Furnace Sloop, to- 
other with the Dijcovery J^nk» in order to Hnd out' ll 
'nohli-wefl Pailage; and laving propbfed feveral J^^Wci, relating to 

your Proceedings in that Voyage, to which the late Lieutenant, 

'Mafter, Surgeon, an4 Clerk of the Fumaee Sloop have givei) An- 
fwers, I am comimanded by my Lords Coinmiffioners •f the Adml^ 
ratty to fend yon Copies of 'thp ' (aid Objejlioiis, Queries and An* 

.]fwers, aiid am to acquaint you, that the Pufalick having been at a 
great Expence in fitting and fending out the faid Sloop and Pink, in 

'prd^r to make the afore- mentioned Difcovery, which would be of 
great publick Utility, their Lordfhips think it a Matter of a very 

'ferious Nature, and that they ought to be thoroughly fattsfied, that 
the Perfon entrufted with the Execution of fuch a Defign, has (Iridky 
performed his Duty therein; and therefore they cxpe6l. that you 
give a very particular and clear Anfwer to the fevcral Points of Mif- 
^onduftj^ which you are charged with by the afbrefaid Papers. I ain« 

Tw very bumhh S^r^van^ 



/5~ CL f6~ 


ftqtiitd, Ktlevf^d^ T (tfrctitMI hid M oiher My bal t6 taftver 
liiBi Ftaipigft by PanMph i «id Wheterer t met with IUpttidoiM» 
to riftr )mdk to the Attfwtrs already {iveti. 

Mr. ^ — *t CluugeB being of three Kinds^ A^i^^ M^tmuiMit^ 
md ^ofTMfrimti Mr thi Sm^cm rf U i I have, for your Lonlflupt tafinr 
I^rceptioii, at the End of my Anfwers at large^ made a fiimmary 
Rcdu^ii of them ander dioie three Heads, and fnbjoined the Sob- 
Ittice of iliy Anfwer to eadi. ' I have alio added a Paper to ihew 
the Aany ContMlfliioiit and IncorfAencie^ in the AntWert to the 
' K^^hries, of whith yoor Loidlbips have been pkas'd to treafmit me Ae 

Bat4»etfaiii|M8!llimineiitfOii*d, Wbkh nevertheieft I am fuKy 
feirftoMM is t&HQAXy neoeflary to your Lordfliips perceiving Mt« 
•i>— -^*l Ofcjd^otts fe their true Light» and' trscingthem to their 
Mid Source ; and thsit is a fucdad Aocoimt of what had pafled be* 
tweea Mr. D*^ — r end me (orxehithi|; tb'm^ frem the time I iifft 
knew h!m, almoft down to this !Di); ^' Which I have therefore^affnm^ 
the liberty to prefix to' hJs'pfaSdEtioins. 

And now, my Lords, m an humbleCbnfidence, dmt I have, to yoar 
Iiordlhips Satisfa£Uon, approvM my idf a Bdthfbl Servant and Snfcjea 
of his Majefty, I h»pe that your Lordlhips will be pleafed to allow 
lae the Liberty to print a l^efente of my Condoa at large, in order 
eo wipe of thofe Afperfions which Mr. I>— -^ and his Abettors haw 

Jiadaf&ioiidy eaft upon me, as well in publick as in private, to tbr veir 
HMt injury of my CharaAer and Reputation, t am» 

My Lordif 

mki /a$ti/U hmUf Sitvani, 


€. Middktmk 

SSV B N or e^t Vears ago, being then fetting out on a Voya^ 
10 Hm^s-B^fi 'Mr. JP"-- ■ often made iliong Application to 
"te, ^dient Stranger to him, to quit the Company*s Service, in whick 
I'hadeohtiliuedmany Years wi^ much Reputation, in order to un- 
CeHflce a Diftovery of a north-weft Paffiige into the wefiem i^#r»- 
urn Oteair ^ telling me at die fame time, that he had already apply 'd 
lo die Governor and Sir^^ors of the Company about finding out a 

ribper Ferfen's but that d>ey gave little Attention to hn PropofitioDS. 
adfive icd him, that I had expenenc'd the Service to be fo bene« 
ficUlin Employ« as I know not how to give up with Prudence i 
^ k$ uA^r^iaif^'ti't^ik iU fteh Qijeaiottvb| aflafing ni^ 




On my Arrival at the Orkneys homewards, I lent a 
Letter to Mr. D — , with a juft Abftraftof my Jour- Append. XII. 
naly from our leaving Churchill Kvvtt to go upon the 
Difcovery, to that time, by a Ship bound from thence for Ireland ; 
and las ibon as I arrived in the River Thames^ I fent him a Duplicate 
of the fame Abflraft for fear of Mifcarriage ; both which in his Letter 
of November ig. he acknowledges to have received. In this Letter, 
Mr. D fays, '* I am convinced, from the £xtra£i you have 

*' fent me of your Journal, that from the Welcome in 64° to the Lati- 
tude of 67 Degrees, there are no hopes of a Paffs^ge on that 
Coail ; and if there is any, it mufl be further North, and confe- 
quently attended with moreDifHculty. — Upon the whole, I think ic 
would be in vain to pufh it any further that Way, I think the only 
fafe Way now is by the Rivers Nelfon and Churchill, &c." He clofes 
thus, ** I hope to have your anfwer as foon as you can conveniently, 
'* with your Journals and Draughts ; I wifh you Health and Pro- 
fperity in all your Undertakings, and am, with great Efleem, Dear 
Sir, ^c. (Jppend, XIII.) 

In Anfwer to this, I fent him my Letter of November 27, pro- 
mifing him my Journal and Chart by the £ril Opportunity, and ad- 
ding at lad, ** Undoubtedly there is no hope of a PafTage to encou- 
" rage any further Trial between Churchill and fo far as we have 
*' gone, and if there be any further to the northward, it mull 
" be impjiilable for the Ice, and (he Narrownefs of any fuch 
*^ Outlet. In Latitude 67° or 68° it cannot be clear of Ice 
** one Wf ek in a Year, and many Years, as I apprehend, not clear 

*' at all. 

** In any other Attempts, I (hall be glad to give yon all the 
** Afliilance I can, and furnilh you with any other Informations that 
•« you may think needful to promote your Defign ; but I hope nc- 
** vcrto venture myfelf that Way again. " (Jfpen, XIV.) 

In the Middle of his Letter, of the 1 9th of November 9 are inferred 
fome Queries, which I anfwer'd in this. 

His next Letter was of December 14th, 1742, he begins, '< Dear 
** Sir, I have your lafl, of the 27th of November, in anfwer to the 
** Difficulties I darted, which you have fully anfwered; fo that I am 
•* fully convinced there can be no PafTage N. W. by Sea, as we 
** feemed to have had Reafon to expedl ; and therefore it would be 

** very wrong to think of attempting it for the future. 1 

" have a Letter from Mr. Samuel Smith yefterday, that he has for- 
*^ warded to me your lafl Journal, and that you will fend me your 
.*' Draught as foon as you have got it copied, for which I am wzxy 

much obliged to you. 

I fhottld be very glad you were employed in fome Way fatisfac- 

tory to you by the Publick, which you have fo juft a Right to, 
•* after having quitted the Company 'sService in order to ferve the 
'* Pablick, and wifh it were in my power to contribute to it ; I 

B *< ihould 


f lO 1 

<< flioulddoitwinhgreat Pleafure, and wotild go oTeronthit -Hry 
** Account if it would be 6f Advantage : In the mean time I wifli 
«' you all Happincfs." (Jpptnd, XV.) 

I wroCe back to him January^ 1 742-3; and (hould have done fe 
fooner, but that I was in an ill State of Health, which would nof 
permit me to return him a mature Anf^erto a new Scheme which he 
propofed to me for my Concurrence in his laft, of laying open the 
Hudfw s-Bayl!\:^'^t \ my Sentiments on which was theBufinefsof 
this Letter. (Apend. XVI.) 

I am apt to think your Lordlhips will believe^ that hitherto our 
Correfpondence feems to have been carried on in the moft frank and 
fincere Manner^ and that for any thing appearing to the contrary^ we 

did repofe a mutual Confidence in each other : yiet Mr. D foon 

after cbmmenced my bitter Enemy/ and made ufe of the iihworthieft 
Means to hurt me, as appears from an AfBdavi^ of Mr. Wih 
fon^s (Append, XX.) and from ' anothei^ of Mr. Dewilde't (Append. 

The next Letter I received from him was dated from Li/ium (in 
Ireland) J itn. ztd, 1742-3, and begins thus : 

Dear Sir, In my lalt to Samuel Smith, I indosM one for Lw/***, 
open for your Perufal, — -- and jn the fame Letter hinted at what 
I have difcovered from your Journal at large, viz. that you have 
*^ made a* miich greater Progrefs in the Difcovery of the Paflage, 
'* than you imagined when there ; and that from the Lights I have 
** got from your Journal, I can almoil prove that you were in the 
*< Pailage, ^c, and- that IVager River is properly ^^^#r Straits, 
** and not a frefti Water River-^ — I only want your Chart of die 
•* whole new-^difcovered Coaft to ettaMifh or contradift my Ju^p;ineint 
*^ of it, which I am informed is come to Dublin, but not yet lent to 
*^ me." 

Here he introduces his Reafons, being much the fame as thofe he 
brings intlicprefent ObjcAions. (Append, XVH.) 

I (oon returned ,him an Anfwer at large, in which I endeavoured 
to undeceive him, by much the fame Arguments 1 have nfed againft 
that Part of his Objedlions, (Append XVIII. ) and incloftd I fcnt him 
the Licutfnant's and Mafter's Report. (App,lL,) 

About February ^r March, Mr. Samuel Smith, mentioned above in 
Mr. D — '5 Letter, being iiis Agent here, came frequently to me, and 
acquainted me that Mr. Z)-^ was refolved to purine his Schemeof lay^ 
ing open the Company's Trade ; and much importuned me to write 

to Mr.D ,that there might be /till hopes left of a P'affage', even though I 

thought 'otherivi/e 5 for that it would be a means of facilitating Mn. 

D 's Scheme : in confequence of which himfelf, he (laid, expeded 

fome confiderable Advantage : But I told him, I could not do it at 
any rate, fince all things concurred in proving the contrary. 

In Aptil, Mr. Rankin, my ^eutenant, came to me, and (hcw-d 
to* me a Letter he had received from Mr. D— — , then juft come to 


Town, in which he |oldhin» thau he hud Reafons to fufped Oaptain 
iduUktm hadtdefignedly fupprefs'd the Difcovery he had mede i and 
that believing him ( Mi. Rankin) to be a Perfon of Veracity, he defired 
him to come and dine with him fach a Day^ and fatisfy him in fome 
Points he intended to propoie to him. Mr. jRn^fi/i defired my 
Oj^inion» if he (hould go or no(. . I anfwsred by. all means, and to 
fatisfy him in all things to the beft of his Knowledge. This was the. 

firft time I had ever fnfpedUd MtrD — of any oncandid Inten^ 


Mr. Rankin went on the Day appointed ; and, the fame Evening* 
Came and acquainted me, that he found Mr. Wygaie^ my Clerk, and 
Mr. n^mfifrn^ my Surgeon^ there ; and that they aU exprefs'd a Sur** 
prize to fee each other, for that every one expeAed to have been thero 
alone. That the chief Matter propofed to himfelf was, whether he 
Qould draw up any thing to prove my volunury Negled or Con- 
Qialment of the Difcovery \ And tha^t he anfwered, he knew o£ 
nothing but what was contained in Journal and Reports, which he 
would abide by. The Clerk and Surgeon, he (aid, feem'd to bo 
planted there as WitnefTes to what he fhould advance ; for there 
was little faid to them in his Prefence ; and by their great Familia- 
rity with Mr. D , he made no doubt of their having been there 


Upon this I determined to pay Mr. J) a Vifit myfelf ; and 

accordingly went to him the feventh Day after his Arrival in Town. 
I fentup my Name, finding he had a good deal of Company, who 
ell withdrew when I came into the Room. Being with him alone; 
he pretended to receive me very kindly ; and when I exprefs'd e 
Surprise, that contrary to what was ufual with him, he had beene 
whole Week in Town without letting me know it, or coming to fee 
me ; he anfwer'd, it was on account of fome indifpenfable Attendan- 
ces he was obliged to pay to Perfons of high R^ink. Without fur^ 
ther Ceremony I taxed him with his fecretly dealing wiih my Offi« 
cersi and told him, that if be had any Doubts to be fatisfy'd in, 
he Well knew I was always ready to do it myfelf, and 1 could not 
think he meant me well. He aCured me my Sufpicions were wrong, 
end that he only wanted to be informed, for the fake of fatisfy ing 
the Lords of the Admiralty, why we returned io foon from the 
Difcovery ; and found it was owing to^ the very ill State of Health of 
both the Ships Crews : And when I took my leave, he promifed 
to repay my Viiit foon, which he did in a few Days ; when, 
%X my Defire, he perufed my Log- Book and Draughts, and hav- 
ing afked me e few Queftions about the Tidesi cook his leave, 
end I halve never (een^ him fince,. excepting once or twice by Ac:- 

Aboet a Week after this, Mr. James Smith, whom Mr. D 

Ufflfeif had recommended to me as a Friend {Jfpend, XIX.) and at 

B 2 fttch 

[ 12 ] 

Aich was employed by me in the Voyage) as an Under-CIerk, and 
wrote mod of the Copies of my Journal, came and told me that a 

dofc Defign was carrying on againft me, between Mr. D , my 

Lieutenant, my Clerk, and my Surgeon, and that Mr. Wil/bn^ my 
Mafter, being then juft arrived in the River, he believed they had 
drawn him in too, for that he was fure he had been with them 
once at leaft. 

Mr. James Smith csant to me a fecond time, and told me, that 

Mr. D had formed a Scheme to invalidate my Journal, and 

reprefent it as a folfe one ; but that Mr. Rankin informing him, 
that his own Journals, which were already delivered in, and fo could 
not be alter'd, agreed in the main with mine, that Project was 

Till now I had only felt a Concern for Mr. D , who had be- 
haved to m^ in fo ungenteel a Manner : But this Intelligence warned 
me that it was high time to think of fecuring my own Reputation 
from his Attacks, which I refolved to do if I could ; and therefore* 
I forthwith fent to Mr. Rankin and Mr. Wilfin, and defired that they 
would bring their original Log-Books with them, which they did ; 
and we paffed mod part of the Day in comparing them carefully 
with mine, Mr » James Smith zSiSdn^ViSi And finding them agree 
in every thing of Confequence, they teHified the fame in writing, 
and lo did Mr. Smithy in the firil blank Leaf of my Journal, ready 
to be delivered to your Lord (hips. 

At the fame time Mr. Wilfin and Mr. Rankin both declared an en« 
tire Diflike of Mri D ■ *s pradifing with them ; and Rankin 

added, that Mr. D ^ had endeavoured to make his Wife believe 

that I i^d threatned to cane him, and perfuaded her to influence 
him to revenge it fome way or other. ' 

Mr. Wiljon\ ProfeiTions of refenting Mr. D *s Proceedings 

were undoubtedly iincere, ^as will appear to your Lordfhips from his 
AfBdavit (jippend, XX.) I cannot fay the like of my Lieutenant. 
He meant me honeftly at firft ; elfe a JBSetter in his own Hand-writing 
(Append. XXXI H.) which I entreat your Lordfhips to read, proves 
him the woi'd of Hypocrites. But the fpecious Promife of a Com- 
mand in another north-weft Expedition appears to have operated upon 
him, and foon altered his Condu6l. As for my Clerk, he has openly 
declared, that becaufe I did not make him a Compliment of a Pur- 
fer*s Warrant, (which I am fure he never aiked of me) he refolv'd 
to diiTerve me the firfl Opportunity ; and to that end took on in 

Mr. D *s Service ; not doubting, with the help of his Friend 

the Surgeon, to do my Bufinefs, and be rewarded on that Account 
with a Purfer(hip. (Mr. Deiuilde's, Mr. Wil/on\ and Mr. Macheath^% 
Affidavits, Append. XX. XXI. and XXVI.) 

On the otner hand, as I have already acknowledged the very 
friendly Admonitions of Mr. J amis Smith, Mr. D *8 particu- 
lar Friend, I ought not to forget Mr. John Lindrick, another young 


[ 12 ] 

Gcndcman of Mr. D *8 recommending, for the generoni Ac- 
count of my Behaviour which he feat' his Father from the Orkneys, at 
a Time when he little thought I ihould be reprefented in fo difierent 
(polours ; his Letter it feems was printed in lome of the Ififi News- 
Papers ; and I am told was reprinted in feveral of our own about 
November laft. (Append. XXVIII, and XXIX ) 

Altho' Mr, D had contriv'd that his Scheme fhould not 

take Air before mod of my* People were gone away into other Ser- 
vice ; yet I have been convinced, greatly to my Satisfa&ion, of the 
Difpo£tion of thofe that are left of them, in and near Londtn, to do 
me Jaftice : For without any Application of mine, hearing of the 
Defigns on Foot againft me, they have enquired me out one after 
another, and offered to make Affidavit of what they happened to be 
WitnefTes to in the Voyage, and which they do ftill well remember. 
It was from fome of thefe I firft learned that certain Queries had 
been fent, by your Lotdihips Dirediion, to be anfwer*d by fome of 
my Officers ; which I find by the Tranfcript your Lordfhips were 
pleafed to order me/ have been anfwered accordingly. 

This is the Account which I have mentioned before to your Lord- 
(hips ; and I humbly hope your Forgivenefs, if it-fhaU be thought 
fomewhat more prolix than may be confident with your Attention to 
Affairs of much greater Importance. 


OBJECTIONS of Mr. A — D to the Condud of Capt* 

Chriftopher Middleton, in a late Voyage for a Difcovery of a Nortli 
Weil Paflage : Together with Capt. CMfiopber Middieton'i Dc- 
fence of his Condtt£t> in Afifwer to the Objediions of Mr. 
J D . 

Mr, p JWT appears that he found a firiSi ^ide at the Head-Land^ 

J[ N.E.of Brook Cobham, and that the Tide fometimei 
rofe there zz Feet, i^nd that many Whales 'were feen there chfe in upon 
^hore, but none feen hut in that Place and in Wager Rii/er by him, and 
§n the fame Bay by Fox, andbetiueen Cape Fullerton' and Whalebone 
Point by Scroggs. 

Cfl/>//MiddletoAl What Mr. /> — means by Journals, July j* 
a ftria Tide, I qEanot gucfs. Being outward Majier's Anf^ers 
Bound in Lat.j(9^ 20' No. 9 or 10 Leagues to ^eft. 10. and 
to the Eaffward of Brook Cobham, I met wuh a 14. \ 

Tide off* the Headland, which run. but two Miles 
an Hour, from the N. E. by E. one Day before the Full-Moon': 
This is no more tban^whnt we find all along that Coaff ; as alfo 
l)etween Churchill and Tork Fort, near the Full and Change : And 
alCo, when it blows hard with a Wind northerly, we frequently ex- 

[ 14 ] 

pcrience the Tide to rife as high as 20 or 22 Feet. Twenty Yetri 
Obfervations along thefe Coafts» have confirmM me in this, and all 
^ho have been duly acquainted with them know it well. Our 

Journals do not mention any Whales, Seals, or 
jQumabt Augttft Sea^Hories, te have been feen nearer Brook Co^« 
12. ham^ than off the Headland, which is 10 

Leagues from it, nor did we fte any near that 
Coaft befides there. 

Mr. D ] But no black JP bales fiim at awf otber time in any oibir 

Part 0/ tbi Bqjf, §r in Hudfon's Straits, fy any Sbips wbo have been in 
ibe Say, either upm Trade, er nfen making Di/covery. 

Caft. Middleton] I have almoft every Voyage feen Whales 50 or 
60 Leagues up in Hudfin^a Straits, and have frequently traded for 
frefh Bone in all Parts of the Straits and Bays, particularly about the 
Tipper Sahages, Salisbary^ %n^ Nottingham in the Straits; the Sleepers^ 
Bakir^s Dozens i and as far down as Belcher* s I/lands, in Lat. 56^* in 
|he Bay, the Company allowing us 25 per cent, neat Profit upon all 
foch Trade. That this can be no oth^r than the Bone of Whales 
aAually taken in thefe Parts, is evident beyond Difpute, to all who 
know, that in 10 or 12 Days after a Whale is dead, the Bone 
^TQps off of itfelf from his Mouth ; for it is impoffible the dead 
Fi(h ihould driv^ 1 80 Leagues in that Time, fince no Ship, even 
tmder her main ^ourfe, or at ti\x\\, has ever been known, by the 
greateft Storm to drive above two Miles and an half an Hour : But 
It is well known* that a vtry fmail Fart only of a dead Whale*s 
Body emerges above the Surface of the Water ; well then may it 
be admitted, that it would require at leaft 3 Months, in the moft 
fiivouraUe CircumfUnces, for fuch Fifli to drive from Wager River 
pr Brook Cobham, to any of the beforemention'd Parts, ox tQ,Rupert 
JRiver, where a dead Whale was found about 3 Years fince, with 
the Bone all in its Mouth ; a fure Proof that it had lately liv*d 
thereabouts. It is not reafonable to conclude, that there are- no 
Whales in Hudjw^z Bay, becaufe we have never feen any. It ihould 
he confidered, that in our Track we always keep at a great DiAance 
from the Shore^ at a time of the Year when the Whales keep in the 
Bays and great Inlets. This is the Reafon why all thofe Indians 
that drink Tndn-Oil, and feed on Blubber, choofe to inhabit the Eaft 
Main, as I have been aflured by one of them who lived with me 
three Years. 

Mr. jy, ] That Wager Bi^ver is a Strait and no frefl? Rivey, 

is evident from its Increafe and Depths from the Esurance on the Eaft* 
fide, to the Soutb-nue/tward and North^eft^voard, and alfo the Heigbtb 
of the Lnnds, and there being no Shrubs nor Timber on any of the Lands, 
sbo* always found in the fame. Of more northerly Latitudes, upon firej) 
Water Bimers, 

Capt. Middleton.] That Wager River was no Strait, but a frefh 
Walter River^ I coUeficd f rom die following Particulars: ij?. From 

. ' the 

youmaltfour ihri^ 
Witks Siof then, 
4mdtb€ Affidavits ^ 
Towns, Von So^ 
briek and Grant* 

C»5 3 

Ae Floods coming In at its Mouth from the Eaftv^ard. zdfy^ From 

its flowinff i8 Feet at the Entrance, but 13 at 

Deer Soutui, and at the highell the Boat went, no 

mere than 5 or 6 Feet, ^dlf^ From the Water's 

being almoft freih in the ^(id^Channel above 

Deer Sound, A> that the Men chofe to drink it 

ftlottgfide the Boat, when myfelf Was prefent. 

4(hh» From the Waterfalls being fo ftrong, as 

to f[>rce the Boat to come to a Grapnel, being 

traab)e to proceed higher up. 

Mr. D ] 72^ Eaft Entrance of Wager Rwer wds onfy 7 Mlei 

tvide, and from \\to /^^ Fathoms in the Mid-Channe/, as they/ai/ed in, 
*Ooith a rapid fide^ which run from 6 to g Miles in an Hour, butfdrtber 
itp fVeftward, ewen ftom 20 Leagues to ^o North<ivifi, it increajfed to % 
ami I o Leagues nvide ; and fo as to have no Ground nvith a Liife of -6$ 

C^ip^/. Middleton] It is afidladous Way ofargning XT^^/r Rirerto 
be a Strait from its fncreafe and Depth of Water. In feveral Farts of 
^t Norway and Swedifi Coafts, there are large Rivers which the Na- 
tives call Fnvrs, not above 10 or 12 Fathom at the Entrance, and 
yet they difcbver no Ground within, with many hundred Fathoms oi 
Line. It is indeed not difEcult, tho* it would be too tedious, to ai> 
count for all fuoh Rivers enlarging their Capacities, *both in Breadth 
and Depth. 

The Land I faw here was as high to the full as any I met with a- 
bout the River Wager i As for the want of Trees and Shrubs, thole 
who have travelled from Churchill N. W. as far as the Arctic Cirde, 
by Land, as Iforton and many others, all agree, that after they had 
pad the Lat. of 61^ they never faw the leal^ Tree or Shrub, though 
they went two or three hundred Miles within Land, amongfi Lakes 
and Rivers of frefh Waters. 

Mr, D-^ ] At lo Leagues from the Entrance it nvas full bf black 

Whales, Seals and Sea-Hot fes^ nvhen there <were no Whales feen belowl 
or without the River, 

Capt. Middleton] I faw myfdf only two fmall Whales, neither of 
them of the Whalebone kind, in Wager River, thefe were at Deer 
Sound, where the Lieutenant and Mafter faw 0- M^g./ A C i» 
thers^fthe black kind, but none were feen a- cs a^ 
bove it; thefe, they were of Opinion, came by "^* ♦* 
fome Inlet on the Eafl Side the River. Mr. D— fays, that the River 
at 20 Leagues froni the Entrance was full of black Whales, SeaU and 
Sea-horfes. None ever faw Whales above Deer Sound, which yet is 
but 1 5 Leagues higher than the Entrance. But how comes it about 
that none of thefe ^ere feen yet higher up, nearer his pretended 
Faiiege into the Wefiem Ocean, where it was clear of Ice, if the/ 
came in that Way; whereas myfelf and others faw three at out 
coming out of the River ? Afbr all, if the Whales came not in from 
cheEi^ard, why fliould there be fuch Abundance of Efiimaux 

* . - about 


[ i6 ] . 

. ., Ahont Savage Sound, but eight Leagae8wiU;iiii 
Ltgg - ioffk, Aug. the River's Mouth, with Storc^houies of Blubber^ 
4.^ and the Jtffida- and Fin» and none to be feen elfewhere on the^ 
njits of Towns, Coafls of this River ? Whereas, did they come 
Von Sobrick and in higher from the Wcftward, the inland wherc- 
Grant. Append, of thefe Indians chiefly inhabit, we fhould cer-,. 
XXII . XXIII- tainly have found them and their Storehoufes that; 
mndXXW. way, and not down the River 60 Miles from 

their Homes. As for Mr. D 's Seals and 

Sea-horfesin the River Wager ^ I take them to be all his own ; I ne-, 
Ter faw any \keicmyit\f, nor have I heard that any of my People 
ever did. 

Mr. D ] AU broken Land at the North -tjueft End, ivhh a. 

great CoIIediion of Waters full of IJlandi, the Lands on the Sides as. 
high as the Lands at the Cape of Good Hope, ^nd a large opening on 
the Southnjuefi Side. 

Capt. Middleton.] The Lieutenant and Mafter fay indeed in their 
Report, that they law, far to the Northward, a large ColledUon of. 
Waters, with mountainous Land on. the Sides; and on the Wefl Side 
bluff Points and broken Land: But then they take Notice alfo of a 
grt^at Run or Fall of Water on this iide the faid CoUedion of Waters, ^ 
which doubtlefs miill have rendered any, Progrefs upwards impradirf. 
cable ; and affords a ftrong Argument againlt any Communication 
between Wager River and the Weftern American Ocean. If it jbe . 
worth while to form any probable Conjedlures about fuch large Col* 
ledions of Waters, I would fay, ^is likely they, are no other than a 
kind ot JLakes of melted Snows from the Mountains ; for feverai fudi. 
we &w every where between the Hills, in the Valleys, when we were . 
alhore on Mountains about Cape Frigid, and above Deer Sound i as 
alfo on the S. W. Side of the River Wager, where I was myfelf the 
Day before we Teft that River. . . 

Mr. D — -] -— which twas ne^uer attempted nor looked into, ^-"^ 

Capt. Middleton.] tho* Mr. D^ — is pleafed to fay, that this Side. 
was never fo much as looked into at all. The Truth is, we had , 
made feverai unfuqcefsful Attempts, to land, there, but never could 
for Ice, before that Day. 

Mr. D ] — nor none of the Bays nor broken Lands betwixt , 

Whale Cove and Cape Dobbs, the South Cape ^ Wager Rimer, were , 

fearched into at all, 

Capt, Middleton.] At our Return from Capo 
Lagg'book, Aug* Frigid to Brook Cobhantj we fearched exa^ly 
10,1 1,1 2, ] 3, 14. all the Wed Shore, as near as the Iflands and 
Mafier's Anf to Rocks permitted us with Safety, and faw all the 
^.12. AJJidavits Main-land and Bottom of the Bays, as is ex- 
of Towns, VoQ plained at large in our Logg-book, fliewing the 
Sobriek ^Grant. C^uiffe-fvijd Dillance failed every H9ur, in haul- 
Appendix XXII^-^ing off or on, to deepen and fhoaiden the >ya- 
XXlilandXXjY^ ter, which the journal cxpreifeslefspaaticularlyi^ 



dTptddly ftot WimkitniPwit$o Bfoofc Cdidm hompwtrjg ; Tto 
feft of dw Way N#rfhward we had tniverled oucwird bonid. We 
had veiy lictie luuey Weaker, except in the Night, and then wt 
kf bjr tili Daylight, awi hairied mi at near . the Shore as we dvrftw 
It was not potf ble lo mifs aay Iikis where thexe coidd te any HofU 
of a Paila|e. Oft Cape FiUhrtn^ we met with 
iLocsks ana broken Ground li¥e i^eagves difiaat, ^niHUil and Ugg^ 
which cibliged us to haul furtker o* to deepen ieok^ Aug. to^ 
Dur Water, and lay to for moderate dear Wet- i\ . 
Cher, hccween the two Shore«. But wiksa it 
cleared up, aire ftood in N. and N. b. W. into 40 odd ^thome 1 3 
we caaM within that Depth, we fell into broken Gratind, faddeft 
Shoaldiniis, KipUogs ana OferfaiU. But between Lat. 64 and 65^ 
we had becier Soandings, and could come nearer the Land, though 
at Nigbt we were obfiged to ipeep a League or two farther oot, an! 
drive, as pir Logg book, and lUnd in ihore in the Day t We neTcr • 
bat once were «bo¥e four or (we Leagues off Shore, and dbat waa .co» 
wards Morning, in £Kpe(^noe of Day-lights in moft other Plaeea 
not above two or three Leagaes from ehe Land, and in nine FadiooN 
Water off the Head-land in Ut. 6«o 20'. All Ac North Side ol tlie 
JlVekomi is hig^ Land, and as tar as Brook Cakbimh appears verr 
jwar at foor or fi?e Leagnet 4ilUnce. fMr*8 Acceowt of ihia 
-Coaft, and its Tides, inay be met with ta a Book printed at £j*. 
#*« HI i6|5, enoiMy Mmlmiift fncf «r Aw firnm the Ktrihwtft 

Mr, D } tho ike thief ?kke$ pinted m$ iy Fox iMi/Scregga 

yOr a Pajkge i ibey hmving mentiemd thm to he ail hrekett Lemds etrnd 
fj/Umdt, *whire menif Whaies ^»ere fimt^ nvhete meere ifigh fedei/hm 4 
t$ 5 jParAflwe/,'**-*- 

Capt. Middleton.] Sereggs*» Aecoatit is in the PoUefliott of th^ 
Uuifieit Bay Codipany . 1 l^ve oiitfally pcmfed bo4r that and A^a 
many Years fince. They are fo profoundly tminteliigible, thatoaie 
may venture to (ay, no UAmfplred Pecfbn cat maike any Thing of 

. Ur. Z> ]| hut at Bt9f made there hf Cape. MUddUton^ ndr 

I4s Beats ever ettce feat en Shere, f try the fitks, or ftarch after laieii 
$r Straite, the' he had very Jme Wee^her all the Vtyaijs ; and tho* eU 
m Cetmcil they heUl agreed to fearch that Coafi \ great P»rf ef it he* 
p^ pafi in the Nighty and having n^ heen at aeef Time nearer the Iflande 
fr Heed-lands than five orftsc Le^gnes , ' . » 

Caft. Middleton/) The Reafoir I did not fend the Boat on ShoM 
40 wy the Tides, was too melancholy a one to be eafily forgotten ; 
the gretteft Part of our Men were net only fick, 
Itot had alfe loft the Ufe of their Limbs s fo Maftef^s^fte^. 
that if I h^ manned the Boat, the remaining . I j. Jtjfdantits of 
flandt weald have been infuficient ta have Towns and Von 
verM the Ship, or handled th» Sails. The Sobritk. Jff^. 
Tfltth of what I iay wiU icaroely be caUed in XXII and XXIII. 

C gectios. 


flneftmn; when it is known how many of thefe poor Creatures f 
was obliged to leave at the Orknps^ and how many of them fincQ 
W/t come home Jkaye been, and ftill are folliciting for Smart TicketSj, 
snoit of which wUl, I fear, be for ever unferviceable to their Coun- 
try and tQ.themfelve8. If I had not impreifed eight or nine Men at 
the Orkneys^ as I then wrote to my Lords Commiilioners of the Ad« 
miraltyi I could^not poifibly have brought the Ship home, having 
pot above tbrpe Men and four Officers who did Duty, that were able 
CO come on Deck. But to return to the Tides ; diey were fo far 

from being neglefted by me, that I tried them 
yourtuJt Aug. 1 2. frequently^ and almoft ev^ry Hour, as alfo the 
Ma/terU A^f. toi Currents, which I could do as well •n boards or 
^. 13. in a Boat near the Ship in the Channel, and 

much better than within Head-lands or near 
XflandSf which, by forming Eddies, produce a Confufion and Irregu- 
larity in them % to which Cauie is undoubtedly owing the grofs in- 

coniiftencies which abound in Fox^ Mr.- D ^*8 favourite Oracle. 

My Inllrudiions ordered me to obferve the Height, Courfe and Di- 
xtdion of the Tides ^ but to obferve them almoil every Hour in all 
Places, as I did here, would not only have been quite incompatiblo 
^ith our eyer returning home again, though I had tried but twenty 
Leagues of Coaft, in fuch high Latitude;, where what is called Sum- 
mer is fo quickly over, but it would alfo have been altogether unne- 
ireiTary ; .£or wherever! judged it proper to examine, { never failed 
to do it, as at Churchill Whale Cove in Lat. 6z^ 20L Wager River 
land the'Fjroseti.' Straits s and having the exadl Courfe and Height of 
'the Tides from ndy own Experience at thefe Places, as adfo in all 
farts of Buiifon*% Bay, I Copld not miftake the Floods for the £bba 

afterwards, by obferving the Slacks, as Mr. /> , an uttct Straiir 

-ger to fuch Matftrs, has attempted to infinuate. 

' Mr.D-rT-r-3 ^ — the Shit* bsLmifig ^uitied tbe^Pifct^ry in tkf 

fiiginm»g.q^Al^nft, — 

. Ctf/»/» N^iddliton ] Th^ Difcovery wa9 not quitteii befm.the istk 

of ^Mgu/t, when we left Brook Cohham. This 
Journals .'A^g. Ufinxk h cOnfefledly the fitted of all the Year» 
15. ' apd the only pne too, fqr making and perfeding 

pifcoveries in the(e Parts ; the Seas being then tor 
lerably dear of Ice in fome ^Tears ; for in others, there is no pailing 
8t all to the Northward of I^t. 64^. Jf I had ftay*d longer than J 
did, how could I have expected to pafs HudfoH\ Straits, who weU 
iremember the Fate of one of our hoskeward bound Ships* which was 
locked up in Ice near Mafufifld Ifland in the Mi4dle of Septemher^ 
where (he lay confined th^^ Weekly and had her whole Crew almoft 
frozen to Death: We pfuaUy pafs the .Straits homewards the latter 
|£nd of Auguflt pr the Beginning of September at farther, and even 
then our Sails and Rigging are frozen to fuch a degree* ,that ii n^ 
Topfsil be handed> wci are two i^ thj(ee Da^s tiefii^ie we cwi gf t any 
• • .1. * • " ■• Part 

( »9 } . . 

Pirt 6r It ret : bat what Frelh-trater-geiit!emiin covii trtf imgiiik 
this in an eafy Chair ? 

Since Mr. D is here again. reiteratine his Coiiiplainta of mf 

Neglea of the Coaft bitwadh WJ^ak Cove and Cape Dobhs, I. mall ob- 
ierve» that thongh I did examine it carefully all along, as I have al- 
ready (tt forth, y<it was I na Ways direded by ihy InHmAions to 
do fo. ■ « " Let me add, that foufhward of Latitude 65**, A 
PaiTage has bt^ foUght carefally, and to no parp6fe, for diefe thre6 
hundred Years and mOre; For Button^ Fox^ and many others fince^ 
have kept along Shore by Sea as ^r as 65^, and others ftill higher 
within lAnd ; which is fufficient to put this Point qpite out of Difpute. 

Mr. D ] IFhen aim ft all the Ice iJoas d(ffol<ved in Wager -R£- 

kjer^ and none to obflruS them to the Jhath^ar'd of that Rhfer^ that 
Month heing the heft Month in the Tear to ferfeci the Di/coverj. Thi 
t^nly pMended Reafons given by Captain Middleton 'wby he took Waget 
Strait for » River ^ were thefe^ 7hat Ihe fide flowed into the Straii 
from the N, E, that it voai fUU of Ice at far as the Shifs went upp 
kindjbmewh^t higher, and therefore he took the Ice to he breaking up^ ai 
i!?e went in s and that at a Point, near which they apprehended ther^ 
'<was a Current or frefl> Stream two Leagues from them, they apprehended 
4he Water ivas brackijh, 

Thefrft was no ReafoH ; for if it nJoas a Strait, the Tidle of Flood 
^uft follow them ixjeftiuardy until they met the contrary Tide, and dk 
probably they had not got halfway through^ the Flood tHUft necejhrily fiU 
lotv them from the eaftiuard* 

fhe fecond Reafom hxjhy the Ice was but breaking up <i)ohen they entered 
the River muft be alfo falfe ; for none can imagine^ that Whales id 
^eat Numbers Jhould lie up the River under the Ice not bhike up^ 
and none dt all below vohere it was broke up ; it appears alfo thai 
ihere nvas much lefs Ice above than bekw. Nor caii the third be d 
Bjeajon, becaufe the Water near a Stream they apprehended to be a frefi 
Current jhould be brack^, thongh that is controverted i fnce thert 
nmtre great Openings into the River befides that Stream that they nevet^ 
iried i and no doubt the diffhlvifig of the Snow from the Lands t as welt 
eu Ice, might lefjen the faltnUfs (f the Water At that Seafon in narrovi 

■ Capt. Middleton.] — '• Mi*. D'*— having brodght hie back id 

Wager RiVer^ I mult attend hint there again. None of our Jouroali 
fay» that the Ice was but juft breaking up in the 
Inain River. At the Time the Lieutenant went ^tify ij; 
up to Deer Sound, it was not indeed broke up iii 
the Inlets and Bay^, as his Report teftifies, but did Jppend, VllU 
break whilft he Was there ; 'y6t aifuredly it had 
been cleared away at the upper Part of the River fume Time. If {ts4 
River itfelf had ncft been broken up, we could not have got otir Ships 
into it : But it is well known, that in all frozen Coaniries, the uppef' 
tee of the Riven li blown op and Urit of all gives way, from thd 

Q j» frefhet^ 

Ji«ihe»produ«ed by melted Snow, whidb alfo-hiirrirs the loedown* 
wnrds in Concurrence with the Strieam, and out of the Riveras Moudp 
into the Bay or Ocean. 

And now I an fpealdng of melted Snow* I cannot avoid remark^ 
ing the Weaknefs of this GentTeoian's Conjedtare, that thefe Di^hh 
tdtions flioold fo iar take off the natural faline Quality of this knagina- 
Vy Sea-water, in fo wifde and deep a Bafon, as to render it but barely 
]bracki(h i when it may be made appear, by an eafy Computatioi^ 
that fach Addition can never amount to a thouiandth Part of the total 
Content of the Water, and therefore muft be altogether incapable of 
producing any feniible Al<eration in its Tafte. 

Mr. D — } Ameibir Rtafon he aSfo aUidgtd nvfy hiva* « Riverp 

vms, that' the Hei^t of tbi ^de diminifibid thi farthir ^wefhward hi 
vfiMt, as. from 1 3 ftet^ 'when the Ships lay^ to lo fat at Deer Soundg 
lo Ltasnes higher ^ and to 6 fett at the furihefi bluff Point the Boate 
fwero at' ; however this lafi it/as onfy cohpntatvve^ hawing not had Time 
to make a full Irial ; hut thisy if true^ can he no Reajon^ for it proves 
ptA tbe fame in Magellan*/ Straits ; fy Narboroagh'/ Account the 
^de on the Eafi Side rijes 4 fathoms^ nvithin the fecond Narrow i o 
teet^ and in the Middle^ tvhere the other Tide meets it, it ri/es hut Soe^ 

To make ont this rafJd Tide in Ws^er Ri*ver, and to account for the 
JFhales heiug there- and coming in hf tbe Way the Ships entered, be «A 
tedges there ivas a great Tide jfowed through a frosun Strait north eafl^ 
msard o/yf2Lgtr River, from HudfonV Strait by Cape Comfort, nAjhict 
nuas 1% to ao Leagues iong^ from 4 to ywide, but filUd nuith Iflands, 
^ndfa^froxe from Side to Side, under nMch theU WhaUs natfi be^v4 
faffed, and the Tide which filled not only tbe great Say, above Cafe Hop« 
and Wager Rifver, but alfo the nuhole Welcome, as far as the Foini, 
' ^ear Brook Cobham, nvhere he fuffofes the fonsbem Tide wet it, oni 
laeiifed the great Tide there. 

Capt, Middleton.} I do believe that my Conchifioii^ drawn froa 
tbe leffening the Rile of the lidein afcending Wager Rirtr, will ap-i 

rar jaft to all who have been miich experienced in inch Affairs ; ye| 
own, that the Inftance of ^the Tides in the Straits of Magellan^ 
which Mr. Z>^— brings from Sir John Narhorough, admitting cha^ 
|hey were duly obferved, is an Exemption to thk general Rule, and 
luts been often remarked as the only known one of tbe Kind. How* 
ever, no one who has pa&d that Strait takes the leaA Notice of aoj^ 
Brackifhnefs orFreflmefs of the Water; though they all remark the 
Abundance of Trees on its Coafts In a Word, the feveral Phaeno* 
jnena and Properties of tbe River Wager do univerfally agree wiib 
f hofe of all other Rivers where the Tide flows» in tbe known! 

Mr. D — > J. In Anfwer fo this it appears, that nw Whales 'were (km 
near that Strait nor Bav above Cape Hope, nor any nvhere near Wagef 
Mhoer, at tbe Baft End, nor in the Welcome, until stear Brook Cob* 
Ijam, and conje^ntiy tbe Frefnenpion h ftrong, that tbe Whalee 


mi^.c4m4h$bHin^.' Siber4 me ttifb Jhmg Rrd/ifn f$Jka»i ifni 
m fidt Jr4m Cape -Prigia mmi amfe the 7i4t in th Rrvir Wager— ^ 

Caft. MMleioB^I it Jt irnr, js Mt. i> obierves, that oof 

Feopk fatw tio Whalea ihinng our ihort Stay, at die frigid Strait, *o» 
ia.Refulft.Bmf ubow Capi Hiftt^ tho^ tkere Aiglit be gi^t Noon 
btr» m ihore whiak efeaped oor Yiew^ as tboTt certainly would 
wkkk I efcaped our Vikw, at tb^Ce cerlamly wookl wbick I bav# 
fcid we faw off the Head Laiid~Hk Latitude 6^^ io\ if we bad 
Bat been witbin five <»r ix Mifes of tbe Sbore» and the abtmdancs 
of Sea-boriet and Seals wbtcb appeared efery where tkereaboats, n 
BO fnali IndicatioBi tbat tbofe Parts ale not without Whales, fiaeo 
ibey arevieldom feen in Numbers, but where Whal«s alfo ooaui/ 
i have already ooBtradi^ed his Aiertion, that none were ieta %m» 
the eaft £ad of Wager River, by inftandDg three my felt and otben 
iiw there. 

, Mr. />— ^.]. ■ ■ ■ <■ • and thai *# h bighfy ptohabkf thai thtre ii 
m fucb Strait y and that it it. only in Imagination. $r cakulafta o fif^ti 
that particular Pnrpojt, For Jrom the w/ervaiions he made in Wager 
Ri^oer* lAjbeve be Ju^ed three Wttksy he could ajeertain the Time ^ 
^idoMt High-tMmter: *wMere the Ships lay in ^Tmge Sound, which ^nett 
foced t^ a fweft^nd-hy^north Moon^ making High <vater. 

Capt. Middleton] He might as well h&ve laid, *TiMikc1y Hunt^ 
Jmfs Straits is an imaginary one, as that, 'tis pro- 
bable there is no Aicb Place as the Frigid Sir sits. Log ^Mrrs«/,Aog^ 
When I was on Shore at Cafe Frigid^ 1 lent the S. 
Carpenter and Gunner to the Top of the higheft 
Mountain theic^ firom whence they could ov^eriook afid take a d(« 
ilindt View of all the Straits to the fouthward, and the Land, Iflandsi 
and Bays all ronnd. At their Return, I ftri^y ej^imined them at lo 
dw Particulars tbcy faw; whether they were po- 
£tively fure that the low Beach loined to the Land Ma/ter^s A^f, # 
we ftoiod upon } They aifiired me it did i that we S^u. 1 1. 
were on no lihnd cut off from the Beach i and 
tfiat the Froxen Straits, of which they delivered me a Plan next Mof* 
sing on board, was at leaft twelve Leagues wide from the £all to th# 
Well Side ; and not lefs than four or Are Leagues over at' the MoMth- 
or narrowed Part. I could indeed fee tstty thing very well from mj^ 
own Station, except to the foutbward towards Cape Comfort, and tlMI 
lligh.Land that way % io that I was fati^fied the 
trotun Strait did not furroond the Land we were Mafter^s Jhtf, l#. 
spon : Beikies had it been ib, we coold not have ^. 1 1 . 
had a Tide io firong as- four Miles an Hour, 
which had like to have hUled the Ship into it. When I wentoa* 
Shore we ftood in within two Leagues of it, and were oblig^d^ 
though the Wind blew a freih Gale off the Motfth or Entrance 
•f the Strait, to Hand from it, thereby to prevent our being ^ 
hauled in among . the Ice ^pn the Ebb, and fet ofi from it <i». 
llnJFIood. Ikl€CheShip bdwcen nine and ten in. the Morning, 


#iid got afliore by elereAt whem I fednd tEe' Wider had firftal 
five or fix Feet by the Shore, and noted it in my Mimormulum 
Book. At my Return to the Boat, at half an hour paft 4 in the 
Afternoon, thofe who kept the Boat acquainted me^ that it had 
£owed four Feet, and I prefently nteafored What Height it had to 
flow to the Marks of the laft Tide, by a Pole fet up at the Wa- 
ter*s Side, and found that a Level continued from the faid Marks to 
the Pole inade twelve Feet, which added to the four Feet the Men 
had obferved, made in all fizteen Feet for the whole Rife of the 
Tide ; though by fome Marks of Sea-weeds, (sTr. on the Shore, it 
appeared to have flowed, upon extraordinary Circumflances, eight 
or ten Feet more. From the ebbing Water when I landed, I con* 
eluded the Time of High- water that Evening would be about 8 or 
9 o*Clo€k> it being almofl four Days after the full Moon, and con« 
fequently a W. or W. b. S. Moon made High* water, and not • 

N..W. b. N. Mobn^ as Mr. D >, the belter to fciit his purpofe^ 

would have it. 

Mr. D .} Hi tritd the 7ide njohin hi nnas en Sbtfri at Qkpt 

Frigid, iMhen hi fuppojid thi Frozen Strait^ on Sunday tbi iightb if 
Auguft, end found it Lonn^nuatir at fivin at N^ht, juft at Sun-fit as 
hi affirms ; thi Moon was at full thi fifth at fix in thi Morning in 
l^tfdon i fo niywing for thi Diffinna of Longitudi, it *wai thin thru 
Dqjft akd iightan Hours aftit thi Full 1 fit that takii^ thru Hours for 
$hi Dijfennti of thi Tidi in that tinti^ it was Lo^ tjoatir at full 
Moony at four in thi Evining, nvhich tvas a S,ff^,b,W, Moon thai 
madi Low-ivatir, confiquentlf a N,W,b,N, Moon snudi Higb-nvatir 
thkrii luhieh .<was Jour Points or thru Hours latir than thi Tidi iti 
Wager Rivtr, and confiquinth could not hi caufid bythatTidi. 
. Oipt. Middleton.1 I muft here however do Mr. />— ^^^ the Juftioe 
to confefs, that when he askM me at my Lodgings, the only time 
he wad plei(fed td call fince my Return, how it flowed there on Sun^ 
day the eighth of Auguf ; having not my Mimorandum Book at 
hand, I anfwered him'. That, to the bed of my Memory, it waa 
Hi^h-water juft at Sun-fet, about feven a-Clock; whereas I fliould 
have faid a litde after eight, the Sun fetting at that time 1 and if»* 
as he relates, I faid Low-watir, that was an inadvertent Blunder^ 
for which I ask his Pardon. 

Mr, D .] Hi dlfo found at Bmk Cobham, that a Wifi or W4 

h.N. Moon made High-nvatir thin, and thin fori that Tidi could not 
Jkw'fiom Cape Frigid, as hi alUdgis from his Journal. 

Capt Midduton^ But to return to the Tides \ 
Mafiir^s Anfwir Thofe who were on board perceived no Tide» 
to ^. II. ^ either of Ebb or Flooct^between the low Beach 

and Capi Frigid, whilft they were driving and 
working to wait for the Boat » whereas if the Land of that Cape 
had been an Ifland cut off from the low Beach, the (Irong Tide 
would have come round it. But I lying open off the Bay formed 

1*5 1 

hf the low Beach and Capif Frigid^ feVeral Horns after mj retwniat 
on board, found no Appearance of any Tide that Way. 

Aftier all, were I to grant him his Tide at Cape Frigfd^ hovf 
fliach could that avail him } It is not po£$ble to account for all 
the Anomalies and Peculiaiides of Tides, without an accurate I^now- 
kdge of the almoft in^nite Caufes and Circnpiftances to which they 
may be owing; as I wrote to him in hlovemher 
laft. Though it flows E.S.E. at Refikihm, and Letter of No^im* 
S. b. £. at Cape Viggs^ making five Poii^ts in her 1742. Append. 
running 130 Leagues, yet it amounts but to a XVL 
£ngle Point in going down to Aibanjf and Moofg 
Sliver; for there it flows S. and the Diftance is 250 LeagueSt 
Again, from HunAer to Cremer, on the Lncoiftflnre Coall, is but i^ 
L&igues ; yet at the former it flows W.b.S. and at the latter N.W; 
Likefi^ife at the Orimtfs it flows S.S.E. and the ytiY iame at Orfird' 
nefi, I could bring hundreds of other Inflances from my own Expe- 
rience ; io that where Tides flow into deep Bays, and are obftru£le4 
by Iflands, or counter Tides, no Rules can be fix^d* 

The late learned Dr. Halley^ in his excellent Iltuftration of Sir 
Jfaac NewtoH's Theory of the Tides, has fet this Matter in a very jull 
Xight. And becaufe he was not only extremely well verfed in the 
Philofophy of the Ocean, but alfoa moft expert Seaman, I fliall not 
fcruple to tranfcribe his Words. 

Speaking of the Phemomena pf the Tides, according to the purf 
Laws of Gravity, he fays — ** All thefe things would regularly coma 
f * to pafs, if the whole Earth Were covered with Sea very deep : 
But by reafon of the^hoalnefs of fome Places, and the Narrow- 
nefs of the Straits thro* which the Tides are in many Cafes propa4 
gated, there arifes a great Diverfity in the Eflb6t, not to be ac- 
counted for without an exadl Knowledge of the Circumflanfes 6f 
the Places s as of the Pofition of the Land, and the Breadth and 
Depth of the Channels, by which the Tide flows : For a very 
flow and imperceptible Motion of the whole Body of the Water, 
where it is, for example, two Miles deip', will fufiice to raife itf 
Surface ten or twelve Feet in a Tide's time $ whereas if the fam^ 
Quantity of Water were to be convey^ upon a Channel of forty 
Fathoms deep, it would require a very great Stteam to ef&dtitiii 
fo large Inlets as are the ChanneUof England, or the Oerman Ocean^ 
tfc." Phi/ofifpkicai Tran/aahns. N?. 226. 

Mr. Z> .] It appears al/o that on the ^xt& 0/ July, as he *u3a$ 

Jtanding off" and on a Head Land in about 6%^ 20'. at five in the Mornr 
ing, he k^Meid the Boat to try the Current, andjonndit fet N.N.E. two 
Knots tvso Fathoms, it being then full Moon, and a W, or W, h, N. 
Moon making High-water there and at Brook Cobham, and it being thetk 
aff.h* Sy Moon, itwat then Jhwing tfater, and the Current Jetting 
Jhwshf N. N, E, the Flood mujt have come from the S. W, and not frok 
N*l£. b. E, as he afterwards pretends, and con/equentfy a ^de might ha*^^ 
tme from tb4 fimtkHjifrft<imrdfi;Qm fim MtU, m 

C^;.MiddIi:toii .] For warn of ExpeiicMS ia thiT iUtam of TiM 
ilhd cneir Coui£e» and a ilroi^ D^fi^e of briBging thoFHoodowt 4f 
ipme Siappofitious I^iet oa t^e »vcft«rn Coaft» h» cricici:Qes my Ob* 
^rv^tioo br ^i/fy ^, endeayoMiring to inVfrt the ttue ilowrfe. iinif 
aa ufual, he keep up iltiSdy to Ruk and Tiieory. Rat ciMie snrko 
)i^)*e been much much in Pra6iioe will snfonia im^ that upon al 
Coalts where the Ti4es fiqw^ tbey are frequently Ibond to vaiy their 
jCourfis a foil Hour, apd fojaedmes an Hoar and half« juft as tlie|r 
ka{>pea to be accelerfttd or ret»-ded by confpiriBg or adverfe Winds % 
X do not mean blowuigon t^ Coa^ when the Obfervatcon is nmde^ 
but at a remote Dillaace : Tife£p, I fay, do produce irarioua Irtegiv- 
lar^ties ja tl^r Height aad I>eagti| ol flowing/ in one and the fame 
Place» ajod under the very (ame I^uiarCircunibinoea. 1 have ksowll^ 
for inAaBce* that in the River TS^mts it has oatHrtm its Coarfe two 
J^oursy and ebb*d a|wl 49^*4 tyirpor three tiineetn 6ite Tide, and aU 

JFrom Winds, I u^fk obferve, that Mr. D in ehis Remark haa 

no lefs that twice mircopied my Log- Book, fetting down two Knota 
two Fathoms, for two Ffithoms only, and five inOMJ of fix o'Clocie. 

Mr. fi J , ' ' it tiifg the fiutat Plmee when he mfifmmrds 

Javi tb$ Whales. It 4ffp€ar$ affi, ihftt be fet^ thf LmUenant mid 
Mafier w the Boati yfhett he weu im Wager Miver, t§ Mt out fir a 
Cove or Place of Safei^ firihp Shifts in ca/e thejf could not get etU iif 
eine Ttde^ %Ji they /hould he carried up again by the Rapidity of the Tidef, 
uppu tJbo.IUtum if the fl^dt it rnamf^at the Rate tf6 to g MUii in 

.aMF HflUr$^^. — r- • ' 

Capt. l^iddletpn.] He doieshis Remaifc wkhtnotfaerToudLnpoli 
|be Whales, his conitant Piiou^ t prafume I haye iaid enough upoti 
thb Point already, Pagp 14. . ' 

. Mri D', — } the Boat vmt carried ntt along nvith the Jlce, &f 

itbe great Current ^ the Ehk^ dire&iy hy the fmthtvei Shore, S, fi. t^ 
wards Cape Dobbs, and at the Iwm rf the Tide ai kw Water ^ thty 
^out of the Stream into the Bd^y Tide, on the H. Shore, andfo come Uft 
pgain ^Uh the Flood. 

. Copt. Middleton.} He hath mifieprefented An ASair of the BoatH 
|ieing carried out oi Wager River bf the Cenent of die Ebb. She 
;,, / was carried S. £. b. S. as the Tide iets, along 

jUafiorU J^faj. to the So9th Shore, four or five Leagues, and ^ 

f«f6. LUutenqnte . more; and then ftiecame into the Eddy, oe- 
'ep'iy, July ;&7. caiioned by. the Ebb from the W. b. S. roun4 
ydp^n^x Vill. Cape /Wf. I tried the Ci^rent of the Ebb 
^mnai July ay* a Day before the Foil iiloon» and found it IQ 

run five i^nots and no more. Mr. P fpeaka 

•f nine ICnots, I know of no fnch Current in |he World, bonder 
^PHdffe icarce runs fo much. 

Mr. P \UtLfpoartaafottpots the Ships going ont of tho^ l^oo^ 

jheU t$ frevent their hjtii^ firood hitek again hy Ufi Rettfrn if tl^TUo 
^ F6nd» the;, made their Conrje 0s far as tie; eonld tkfvaardotbi Hoiib- 

ifLfU to h (mt(jftheCmtm ^ ih$ fitb tf Ffmfo mtbkk tmt ho mt 


MnfUmuetiai ^ Tide ^ Flood cam$fr9m the Souti^weftnvard, round Cap* 
Uobbs lit tbi Rsvir Wager ; /or bad it canufrom tbe Nortb-taft^iy thi 
fiiffpfid FroxiH Straitt tbef muftf fy fiandhg that Courfi^ be dinalj in 
ib$W€Pf of tbi Tidi ofFkod to carry tbtm back again into ibo Rinur^ 

Caft. Middleton] On the 4th of Ai^fi^ at 6 o*Clock in thft 
Evening, we 4Kmie down the Rive^ Wagor as far at che lower Iflandf • 
Hie Water had then ebbed one Foot, as all our Journals and Logg 
Books mention. By eight it was calm, and being then joft out of 
the Riyer*s Mouth, we made all the Way we 
jDoaldy the Boats towing the Ship, which was Mafter'*s Anfiw. 

aife rowed with Oars^ whilft we had the £bb to S^ueft, 7. 

Tide helping us, which fet out Eaflward be- 
tween the two Lands which form the Entrance of the Riven By 
1 2 we were jgot 4 Leagues out of the River, as affo, out of the In* 
dnraght of the River*! Tide, the Calm continuing thefe M 4 Hours, 
and the Flood Tide juft coming from the Eallward at t, did not 
ton abov^ 2 Knots ; for the Indraught of the Tide of Rivers 'has 
very little Eifisd, at the Dtilance of 3 or 4 
Leagues. From j 2 to 2 we had a fmall Breeze Logg Journal^ 

at 6. and flood fi. S. E. 5 Miles ; and from 2 Ang. 4*. 

to 4 £. 1 Miles ; At 6 it was almoR calm. 

Mr. u J and to ba*v£ anmded tbat, tbtf ougbt to banio 

fopt tbeir Courft towards Cape Dobbs, that tbe Tide of FM might 
bavi carried tbem to tbe Souibward. Tbe Captain, CUrb, Carpenter*^ 
omd Gunner^ tuent on Sbore at Cape Frigid to vievo tbe Land and fup* 
fo/edFroxtn Strait i tbe Carpenter and Gunner went to a Hill a Mik 
find balf furtber tban tbe Captain and Clerk, and upon tbeir Return^ 
0$ tbe Clerk affirms, they faid the Hill tbef were^upon wasi an' IJland, 
but the Imi btacby Land to fiuthward of them msas joined to tbe Eajtern 
and Northern Land, nA/bicb joined tbe Wejt Land, and formed tbe Bay 
above C^pe If ope^ and that there was no Frozen Strait to Soutb-eajt- 
msard of tbem, as the Captain has laid down in his Journal, and c4n* 
fi^uentfy no Tide could flow through it from the N. W. of HudfonV 
9ttait by Cape Comfort. 

Qapf. Middleton] Now this Gentleman is of Opinion we ought 
to have gone towards Cape 2)«M/, quite back again: How then 
feould we hav(^ avoided being forced afhore among all the Ice that 
htyo^F the Oipe, or aeain into the River f When we could lay 
flidy W. S W. anc) $. W. on the other Tack, the Wind being South 
and S. S. E. ^nd the Flood oaming flrong from the E. and £. b. N. 
This fbrely had been a fine Wa^ ot meeting the Flood, and keeping 
fa my Indrudlions. 

What I have (aid before {P>gc 1\,)\ believe may be fully fufii- 
fient to eyincr the Reality of^the Frozen Strait; yet I will add, that if 
according to Mr. 1} — , there be no fuch Strait, whence fhould the 
Arong 1 ide of 4 Miles an Hour, which we ipet with there, come, 
imd wbich the Lieutenant obierved to force the Ships very rapidly to 
;he North-ea0ward, inlying to about 10 o*Ck>ck in the Morning, a$ 

D the 

the Clerk affirms f who adds, that it nmft be a 
Anj. i9^. z. Flood Tide, though we afterwards found by 

the Shore that it was an £bb» and that it had 
flowed near % in the Morning, as I have mentioned before. This is 
the £f{e6l of Ignorance, or (omething worfe. 

Mr. D is for denying a Paf&ge to the Tides, by flopping 

up the Straits with I Hands, which is fomewhat like (lopping up the 
Thames with London Bridge ; for though our Journals mention the 
narrowed Part cb be but four or five Leagues wide, yet that is by no 
means to be underllood of the Diftance from Main to Main, bat ' 
between I (lands and Iflarids which lie off from the Shores. The 
Mainlands, which include this Strait, are very high, and therefore 
may be three or four Leagues more afunder than, by our Guefs ; for 
determining the Didance of Lands at Sea is no other than gueiling > 
however, I am fure the Interllices between the Iflands/ where nar- 
rowed, are four or five Leagues, and may be more; 

Mr. D- ] -—-^There being no Tidie or Current in the IB eg beyond 

Cape Hope, is a further Reafon that the Tide did not flow in that Way^ 
for that Bay nvou/d have been direSfy in the Way of the Tide ; but if 
the Tide, of Flood came from the Soutb-*we/ty it'nvas a very good Rtajon 
nxjbf there loas no Tide or Current there, it having no further to flvw 
that Way, Nor tan it he prefumed. that fo rafid u Tide, and fi great a 
^antity of Water Jhould flvw through fo narrow a Strait, vohich ik 
fome Places tijas not four Leagues widf, and almoft filled with the IJlandsp 
fo that the Water ^ confidering the I/lands within it, nvas not two Leagues 
voide, foas to fill the Bay above Cape Hope, Wager River, nvhich was 
eight or ten Leagues wjde, -and all the Welcome. . — 

Capt. Middlcton ] That there is no Tide or Current in Repulfe 
Bay, is no Reafon why the Tide did not flow in at the Frozen Straif. 
The Tide did point direflly to the fiay ;' but it is a well known 
Property of -the Tides, that in Bays where the Current of the Tide 
has no Outlet, it will fwell by the Shore, but retain at the fame 
Time fuch a Stagnation, as gives the fame Refinance to the Current^ 
as the Shores themfeives give ; and for this Reafon .no Tides are 
ever difcerned in Bays. Even in the River Thames, the Watermen 
and all Craft are known to keep on from Point to Point, as the Tide 
fets, to keep in the Stream of it. Now this -Gentleman would have 
it, x\i^X, Wager River, where the Strait is but feven Miles wide, bids 
fairer for filling the Welcome, and all thefe Bays, than the Frozen 
Strait, of as many Leagues, which is much, nearer the £aftern 
Pcean. ' ' . 

• Mr. D ] as far as the Point near Brook Cobham, where the 

Captain' oTvns there was a rapid Tide, and alledges the fouthern Tide met 
the other there, altho* it appears that the Ea/tern Tide was lofi in the 
Bay. and could not raife a high. Tide there, it being alfo agreed, that a 
mrth yoefierly Wind at Churchill raifes a higher Tide at Neap, than sm 
ea/terly Wind does at Spring Tides, all thefe confirm that a vefterly Tidt 
ntuftjoccafion fif great :T ides in 6^/ Part of the Bay ■ * " * 
". f ' , . ■ '• ■ V"/'* — 

Caft. Middleton.] Near Brook Cobbam^ I own, the Tide ran 
two Knots and no more at a Pall Moon ; and I ^ have found it run 
the fame or more Knots between Churchill wad Tor A Fort; and upon 
trying the Tide about 8 in the Morning between 
^ager Riirer and Cape Hofi, we found the Ebb Ltgg Journal, 
4 or 5 Miles an Hour, in fuch Eddies and Whir- Aug. 5. 
lings, that the Ships could hardly fteer. The 
£bb fet £. b. S. by Coaipafs : The firft Trial, in bringing up the 
Boat, the Mafter loft one of our fmall Graplings, the Strength of 
the Ebb breaking a new twelve Tnread Rope. He came on board 
again and got another, and upon the fecond Trial found it 4 Knots, 
We made no lefs than twenty Trials in going forwards and back- 
wards between fTager River and Cape Frigid, but found it no where 
half io ftrong as in^the Narrow of the New Strait, except at Cape 
Frigid and the Month of Wager River. I ob- 
ferved the laft Time I was at Churchill, and had Mackbeath's 
it confirmed by Officers who had been there and Jffidanjit. Af^ 
at Fort York above 15 Years, that a North, and pend. XXI. 
a North caft Wind, made a higher Neap Tide, 
than a South, or South-weft Wind did a Spring Tiile, which is a 
Confirmation that the Tide comes through the Fro%*n Strait from 
Baffir!% Bay, ^f. , 

Mr. D < ] ■ ' and find no Whale $ fwere e^ver feen in ctwf 

other Part of the Bay, or in Hudfon*/ Strqits, hut near tht Ea/t En-* 
trance, as they fafs up to Davis's Straits, and that all true klofk 
Whales go in the Winter to warm Latitudes ; all thefe fhingr cqn/sdered, 
is abnojt a Demonftration that thefe Whales . come from they Weftem 
Ocean, euid that the rapid 7tdes near thf Welcome, proceed from the 
fame, ^e Captain, to e*vade the Force of this Argument about the 
Whales, fays, that tho he ne<ver faio any Whales in the Strait or 
Bay» he has howe<ver, got Whale-fin lately taken from the Indians, 
on the Eafk Main, and therefore Whales muft ha*ve been there. To 
this J anfwer, that Jince the Eflcimaux Indians^ kill Whales on the 
North-weft Side of the Bof, «where the Company trade with them for 
Fin and Oil, the Prefumptien is, that fome 'who have been ixjounded by 
them, have got away, and died, and by the North'"wefterly Winds have 
been driven to the Eaft Main', and (here the Fin was got by theNatives^-^ 
Capt, Middleton] Here again he is drawing Condufions from the 
Whales, which he will needs have to come out' of the Weftern 
Ocean,.as well as the Tides ; tho\ as to the latter, all Journals con* 
' tradift him. He iniifts alfo, that all the Bone which is traded from 
the Natives near the Eaft Main, muft be of Fifties, which died of 
Wounds they received n:ai: the Weft Main, and are driven thi^ 
Way by North-weft Winds But 1 have obfervcd before (Page 44.) 
that the Fin drops out of their Mouths in 10 or. 12 Days, after 
they are dead, and that it. would take up more than a Year to drive 
them fo great a Diftance ; to which may be added, that Hud/on\ 
Bay is not i^lear of Ice two Months in twelve* 

Da Al 


At Whali to^ it flows W. N. W. at Brook CMamW. or W. b. 
N. at River JF^ir W. The Flood Tide oQmes the Cburfe of ike 
Weicom hom tlieEaflward in all thefe Placet, which tOMj be proved 
from our Journals. 

If there were any Paflage between ChurcbiU tiki WhakhmVomt^ 
n ear Lat. 65 ^, it would have been long enough ago found out» by 
pne or another of all tbofe whp have been that Way ; fomeof them 
feveralYears together; as Sir Tb$mai Button toA Fox i Governor 
Kilfey, three or four Voyages, the laft' in my Memory; Nafpir^ 
Handcocki Governor Knight ^ Vaughan^ and Scnggs ; who went ta 
trade and makd Difcoveries in all the Bays, Coves, and Creeks a- 
lon|; Shore, feveral of whom harboured every Night ; and Gover- 
nor jfir//^ exchanged two of his own Indians for two EJkimaux^ 
kept them at Fort Tork a whole Year, learned them iome Ef^li/S^, 
and then returned them to their Friends. Afterwards, as he went 
along that Coafty he faw andfpoke with them feveral Times, but 
could get ho Intell^ence from them whidi afR>rded him the leaft 

Probability of a Paflage. Of all this I fohiiihed Mr. 9 with 

the mofl exadi and particular Account I was able to give him feve- 
ral Years ago : iBut to Matcers of FaA hate Power to convince 
him; and his Sicheme refts entirely upon i^famptibns, which all 
Obferyations and Experience direfUy contradict. I have perufed 
dl the Comj^ny''^ Journals about this Difcovery, as well as all 
others I was able to procure, whether in Print or Manufcripr, from 
idle Year 161 5 down to the prefent Time. My IndinacioA has 
led me that Way thefe many Years, as much or m(»e than his, or 
almoft any Man*s living, as all my Acquaintance, and himfclf too, 
know very well. I winterM at Cbnrcbifl for this piirpofe in 1721, 
iind made all poffible Enquiry then, as well as the laft Year, among 
ill the Indians and Engl^h who had travelled inland to the north- 
ward ; and I am thoroughly iatisfied that any further Search molk be 
fruitlefs, either by Sea or Land. Nor does it appear^ that Mr. .&— 
himfelf fo much as dreamed of any fnch thing before I laft went 
6ut i elfe why was he not careful to have it inferted among my 
Inftrudions ; whereas inftead thereof I was (Iridly ordered to oegiii 
at WhaieboM'Point, and fearch to the northward, ftill meeting the 
Tide of Flood, whether it fhould come from the eaAward or weft* 

Mr. D ■■ '■■ ] ^s a fartber Con/rmation of a Strait or Paffagt 
mar the Welcome, tht mrtbirn Indians labo came to Churchill^ as 
viell as tbpje *wbo nveri on board Scroggs, and tbo/e iatify on board 
Caft, Mlddleton, Jaid, tben nuas a large Cofper^mine upon a Strait 
nortbwardof tbeir Country nvbicb ntuekf tveftward^ tbat tbef amid 
€ondu3 a Shop to iof her Side to it, and take it on boara^ and treued tbe 
Coaft upon a Deerfiin iobfi near tbe Welcome ; and the Indians luitk 
Scroggs effer^dto go^ on Sbpre mar Cape FuUerton, faying they nuere 
near iHt anJwtbin tbree or four Days J^onmey^ tbeir own Country^ 
ij^t be (ouj/not fart witb tbem^ 


t »9 J 

CMpt. Middklon] AU tbe Indians I htve tvtr convirsVi widi, 
who weie at the Cbpptrmine, agree in this; That the/ were two 
Saminert going thither, pointing towards tho north-weft and Sun* 
fetting, when at ChurchiUi and that where thit Mine is, the Son» at 
a certain Seafon of the Year, keejM running round the Horizon Se- 
veral times together, without fetting. Now w^ know from th« 
Principles of Coimc^raphy, that this cannot be true of any Place, 
whofe Latitude is lefs than 67 or 68 Degrees, even allowing for ihm 
Efitas of Refradien : And if tbe Credibility of the Teftimony of 
thefe fimple Indians be called in qneftion, I can mention that of Mr. 
Norton^ who was. Governor %t Churchill about twenty Years, aiMl 
had travelled almoft a Year north well ward by Land with thia 
Country Indimss. Thia Gentleman has often affirmed the fame thing 
. of the Sun ; and thfit Jn his whole Journey he met with no Salt 
River, nor Tree, nor Shrub, but only Mofs ; and that he and hit 
Rednue were reduced to fuch Extremity as to eat Mofs feveral Days » 
having nothing elfe that could Jerve them for Suilenance but their 
Leather Breeches, which they eat up alfo. Now ir will appear, from 
a joft crigooometrical Compoution, that Churchill being in Latir 
tnde 59'', and the Mine in Latitude 67^, and the ikaring N. W. 
the Difference of Longitude between Churchill and the Min^ is 
17^ 45'. But ^4fl^^r River's Entrance being in Latitude 65 <» 20% 
and 10 Degrees of Longitude eail of Churchili^ the DilFeFenca ef 
Xuongitude i^tween the Mouth of the River and the Mine is 27° 45', 
and their Di(lance|n the Arch of a great Circle, or their neareA 
Dtftance, no lefs than 700 Miles. From what I have here made 
out concerning this Mine, and the Way to ir, upon the Report of 
the Indians and of Governor Norton, it fofiows, even to Demonftration, 

ly?. That neither JVi^ir River, nor any other River or Sea does 
extend fo far weftward, from any Part of Hud/oH*s Bay in lefs than 
Latitude. 65^, as to crofs the Rout that lies between Wager Rivet 
and the Mine. And, 

24^1^, That if there be any Paflage at all, it muft run up fo high 
northward, as to crofs the Parallel of 67^ on the ea(t Side the Mine^ 
and confequendy muft be frozen up, and abfolutely unnavigable.the 
whole Year. 

But, after all, a Paflagc i$ Mr. D 's Philofopher's Stone, and 

muft be fought for till tbund. If you mifs at Brook Cohham and 
IVagtr River the next Bout, then try Nelfin and Churchill Rivers. 
(See his Letter of November 19. Append, XIII.) 

With all my heart, fay I, for my own fake f provided Mr. D 

himfelf accompanies the Expedition, to fee that there be no Ncgled 
or Cpncealment : And in his Voyage it may not be amifs for him 
to confider the following Particulars. 

HndfmC^ Strait is fourteen Leagues wide at the' Entrance ; forty 
Leagues up it is thirty Leagues over , and the neared Diftance^ be- 
tween Cape Walfingham and Nottingham 4fle is twelve Leagues ; the 
whole Length beiag about one hundred %ni thirty Leagues, 'Many 



Ytars we cannot pafs the Stnit ootward-bound before the latter 
Bnd'of Au^fi^ and then with inaedible i^atigue, and perpetual 
Danger of lofing Lives and Ships. Two out of three were loft 
within thefe fixteen Years. After pa£Ging the Strait, there is flill 
the Bay to crofs, in which I was detained no lefs than fix Weeks in 
Ice, the lad Voyage I undertook for the Company. I never was 
able to arrive at the Fadory above five or fix times before the 20th 
of Auguft^ in three and twenty Voyages I have made thither : And 
it is a Handing Order not to attempt to come back the fame Year, 
unlefs we can fail from the Forts by the loth of Septemter. Till a 
little above twenty Years ago, a Voyage was feldom made without 

Now fupppfing there were another Strait on the wefiem Coaft of 
J^tfi^ff's Straits, or between Latitude 6i and 65^, and that this Strait 
were about as long and as wide as that. 

In the firft Place, there could be no entering it before the latter 
End of Auguft for Ice, whether from Englajni or your Wintering- 
place in the Bay : For though we got at Cburcbiil River by the 
I ft Day of Jwly laft Year, yet the like has not been known thefe 
twenty Years, by a Fortnight at leaft. But notwithftanding fo fa- 
Tourable a Winter, and early a Spring, had we not work'd Night 
and Day Tides, from the Beginning of April to the Middle of Junt, 
with infinite Labour in cutting out our Ships, which were bedded 
twenty-three Feet in the Ice and hard frozen Snow, as may be feen 
in the Journals, we fhould not have got out fo foon by a Month. 
After slU this was of no Service in forwarding us; for being got 
into Bay, we found all the Shores lined with Ice for many Leagues, 
fo that no Opening could be entered s and Uie great Rivers and 
Straits beyond 61 Degrees, are full of it until the Middle or latter 
End of Augudt and many Years not clear at all. I have been fiift 
myfelf in HudjkfCi Straits for fome Days in Septemberf till a north- 
weft Wind happened to fet me and the Ice a going^ together. Of all 
the Sloops in my Time, which the Comp'any haye fent almoft every 
Year along the Coaft towards the Welcome^ either upoa Trade or 
Diicovery, none but ^rr(^j*s . could ever get beyond Latitude 64 
Degrees for Ice ; and fince the Year 1 7 1 8 they have loft two 
Sloops and a Ship that way. Many of them could not get beyond 
62^ 20^ Now all this well weighed, what Chance have Ships for 
psfling fuch a Strait as we have iuppofed. 

But grant there was no Ice co prevent aShip*s paffiog about 
the latter End of Auguft^ yet at that Seafon the Winter logins to 
(it in here, with bard Gales and fuch Quantities of drifting Snow, 
that it is out of all human Power to handle a Sail, or keep the 

Mr. D ] The Ueutenant, nuAftn he *was 9n Sh§n near Dptr 

Sound in Wager Ripper, fet an Opening h his Compa/j S, W. rf him^ 
§n the fVefi Side •/ a Strait betwixt \ a high blnff Pointy and a Icwer 
Peint. thi: In-et iiuas ofppfite t$ the Place mfhere the m/i Whales 


[ 31 3 

wotriftinf and nvds ntvtr inquire i into or frotniii ttpon ly the Caf^ 
tain, although acquainted morth itp nor the Opening among the IJlandt 
U the north'tueftwardt hejond the Place the Lieutenant 'went to, alth^ 
the Lieutenant and Mafter, under their Hands, reported they believed 
there was another Wof into the Sea^ than the Way the Ships entered, 
by tvhich the lP%ales came there, and found little or no Ice to objtruS their 
gotng farther, there being much lifs Ice to the woejtnuard than luas at thi 
Mouth of the River. 

Ca//. Middlecon.] I have the Lieutenant's Paper about this, bluff 
Point dill in my PofTeflion* and a very odd one I think it is, at 
leaft far beyoilid my Cbmprehenfion ; however, J beg Leave to 
fubmit it to the Opinion of my Lords Com- 
miffionersy as it -is a Sample of his other Re- Jfpend.^XX* 
ports. 'Tis hard to conceive how on' the Bear- 
ings he mentions, any Objedl coald be feen, except on the Etft 
Shore, being that whiereon he flood ; for the River lies nearly north . 

and fouth t^ Cotapafs : Mr. D '— fays it was bppofite to the 

Place where moft of the Whales were feeii ; which (hould be fome* 
where agaihft Deer Sound; * bat I could diilinguiih nothing therea- 
bouts, which in the leaft anfwered the Defcription. 

The Lieutenant and Mafter in the Report de- 
livered me, figned with their own Hands, fay, Auguft I. Jppet^ 
That they believe there is another Way into dsx X. 
the Sea befides that which our Ships came in at, 
fomewhere on the eaft Side; and thtft they imagine the Whales 
came through thisPaflage. Indeed they were 
fent up on purj^ofe to fearch for fucha Paf- Or^^r ^^ July 27. 
fage, and to meet the Flood, for fear we (hould Append, IX. 
not have the River's Mouth dear of Ice before 
the Winter fet in upon us, and fo aQ perifh there. For after I had, 
for the Reafons before recited, given up all Hopes of a Paflage thro* 
this River, I muft confefs. I would have parted with all ] had in the 
World to have Jbeen out of it again. 

Mr. D — -^ The Captain, -before he went the JCoyage^ nuas offer " 
id by fome of the DireSors of the Company 5 cool, to return to their 
Service, and not go the Voyage i or to go fear cl^ for the Paffage in Da- 
vis's Straits, or in 'any other Place but inhere he was dire&ed: To 
'which he anfwered. Hi might take their Money and he of no Service to 
them ; for the Gentleman «who had proje&ed. the Veya^e had it fo much 
at Heart, that if he did not go, he voouli get fomehody elfe to go; but 
before he bad done «witb it, he hoped to go in a Coach and Six : 
To which on$ if them tnfwered. He hoped, to fee him at the Devil 

Cupt. Middleton ] I deny, my Lords, that any of the Directors, 
either by themfelves or others, ofiered me five thoufand Pounds, or 
even one Shilling, to return to theij Service, and not go the Voy- 
age ; or to go fearch for the Paifage in Davis*j Straits, or in any 
other Plac^ but wh^re I was directed : And granting fuch an Offtr 

" ' was 


WM m^de,. Mr. D ■ acquics me of anj Crime by the AalWer, 
1m fiiys, I made (or rather, tiiat he in thia Place is (b kind to 
nuke for me) viz, '* That I might cake their Money and bo ol 
*' no Service to them ; for the Gentleman who projedied the Vc^^ 
<< age» had it fo much at Heart, tliat if I did not go» he would 
<V get fomebody elTe to go." What follows, abont my Hopes to 
fide in a Coach and Six,, and . fomebody*s wifliing me at the Deril^ 
is fuch idle Trampery, that! cannot induce myfelf to imagine your 
Lord(hips believe it deferves a ierious Aniwer ; and I am furpriz'd the 
PfiOJedor himfclf ihould think fo* --. 

Mr. 2> ] -^T^Thty afterwards, iy Sir Bibye Lake tbiir G«- 

vimotf promijed him twB Tears Salary^ at 120 1. per Ann. mt i9 ek 
afpp Jhsttg to frejudici or obftruit their frade^ wkick, be Jkjfs^ 'was •nfy 
mfOH account of presenting bis Cre*w's trading in the Bey. — *. 

Qapt^ Middleton] Again, had I through Vanity, or any odier 
Motive, been fo fboiifii and wicked to a&rt I was oftred> 5OO0^A 
ao quit the King's Service ; yet I prefume your Lordikfipe will not 
appmhead my Refafal of fb large a Bribe itdounds to my^Difrepu- 
tatioo ; Befides, iuch a Refa£sil makes it fenieleis and abfurd to (ap^ 
pofe, that I (hould accept of fo paltry a Con£dcffatiQn as two Years 
Salary at 120/. per AnnuMy to negleft my Duty in profecuting 
the Difcovery ; when the ^zxy fanie ^erfons^ at the fame Time, 
were offeriag me 5000/. to return to a ytry beneficial £mployr 

1 readily grants that the Governor and Diredora <^ ^e Compa* 
ny recommended the Protection of their Trade to me. In them it 
v(h» a "^tty natural and a reafonable Reqneft ; and, for my Part, ][ 
^ftecmed it the Duty of my Station to maintain them as ^ as I had 
Power and Authority, in the Rights and Pcivileges which wert 
igranted thetn bjr one of his Majefty's royal Predeop^ors. Befides, 
when they had been fo generous t? allow me to winter at one oif 
their Fa^o?ies^ it would haye been a mean and bafe Return for their 
Hofpitality, as well as the higheft Ingratitude, to rob and plandor 
them, either by trading with the Natives myfelf or iu^riag others 
under me to trade with them ; though I freely confeis great Advai|« 
tages might have accmed by it. 

Mr. D ]— ^A *hat it is fkin Regards or Br^es nvere offered t^ 

biniy to present his perfe3ing the Difiosery. and eimj OmiJJiim or No' 
gleS /aid him open to he /uJpeAed, 

Capt. Middleton.] Mr. D couckides this Paragraph with 

afferting, ** *Tis plain Rewards or Bribes were ofoed htm, to- pre- 
** ven-t his perfecting the Difcovery.** What then ? Does he not 
toiake it alfo as plain that I refuied Bribes, if any were ofiered ? But 
how comes it to be fb plain thiit they were ofered } Neither the 
Lieutenant, Surgeon nor Clerk charge me with any Bribes ; and wilt 
your Lordfhips think a bare Aflcrtion, from one that appears now to 
be my Enemy, a fufHcieht Proof ? I hope not. 


[35 3 

The TruA is^ Mn /)- V large Profeffions of Sincerity and 
Friendihip, once induced me to place great Confidence in him, and 
linbolbm- my felf freely to him; and 'tis poffible I might tell him, 
feveral Members of the Company were dcfifous to have me conti- 
nue in their Service I and that as I Had faithfully difchar^ed th« 
Truft they had repofed in me for twenty Years together, they ex- 
prefledfttch Diflatisfa^Uon of my quitting their Employment, that £ 
ihould not doubt/Of obtaining of them very advantageous Terms, in, 
cafe I ihould be inclined to treat with ihem about returning to theirs 

Mr. D 3 Hi affi^ in the hearing ef his Officirs at Churchill^ 

toU the Gememer and Officers ef the Cempanj^ there ^ that he would be a 
better Friend te the Cemfanjf than they exfeSed ; fir he would he able to 
tnake the Vtf$age without any Man on board being the wi/er whether then 
mias a Faffage or not. ■ ^ 

Cafe, Michiletoii.] I do remember, that being once with the Go- 
vemor and .feme Officers of the Company, they jeeringly faid, w« 
yere^to be regarded as a kind of Enemies; and that I aofwered, 
Pexhapi they m^t find nle a tetter Friend than they imagined, or 
to.tharPttfpoie';. meaning thereby, not only the Power my Inftruc- 
tiojis.gave me to protect their Trade, and which they underfiood" 
well enough i but foraething elfe alfo, which they could not fo eafiljr 
comprehend. To explain royfelf to your Lordfhips, the Agents of a 
certtin Gentleman had, without my Knowledge or Confent^ ihipped 
on board the Dijcovepy, Ms many Goods, to be difpofed of to the In- 
dians, as would have gained them many hundreds of Pounds. This 
I discovered at the Orkneys, and was refolved, as I was in Duty 
bound, not to fuffer any body on board to trade with the leaft part 

The. Words I am chargied with in the latter Part of his Accu(ation« 
Vtrere fpoken to my own People on board, as a Reproach to thein 
IgQOsanoe and Stupidityr and their Averfion to be inftrudled ; and, 
I moft folemniy declare it, not in the Hearing of any one that be- 
longed to the^Conipany* to the beft of my Remembrance. Be- 
fides the Lieutenant and the fwo Mailers, there was not a Perfoa 
in either Ship (killed enough in Sea Affiiirs, to have fo much as ' 
guefied in .what Part of the World he wjas, without being told. 

Here now are two Ejrpreffions of mine, uttered at dimrent Times, 
in different Places, to dtfierent Perfops, and to quite different Purpofes, 
Aofringeniouily coupled togedier by the fingle Particle /or, and fo 
wrought np into one terrible Charge againft me f 

I humbly to your Lordfhips Candour, whether, if I had 
really thought fit to have given the Governor fuch kind AiTaraiices^ 
as tlus Gentleman pr^tiends, ft is likely I fhould have been infatuated 
to fuch a Degree as to do it in fo publick a Manner, and before fuck 

B Mr, 

[34 3 

Mr, D — -] And in Confiqimci tf thh Diclaraikn^ fmk uur% 

that tMtbing Jhould hi mtntioneiin the Lcj^-hook hut nvbaf hi /aw andi 
SrtSled ; and/aid^ He ivould break up all their B^x0i who kept Jouf 
uah, and take their Books and Papers from tf^em ■ ■■ ■ 

Capt. MiddletonJ] As th^e was no fiidi JPlc.« 
Jnf. to ^. 20. daratioD, there could be no Confequence. Tbe 

Lieutenant difowns any fuch Orders of mine a- 
bout Entries, and I am afraid the Logg-book will be thought rather 
txy abound, than to be defedive in Particulars. The Chaig^ of tak* 
ing away Journals, Papers, i^r. is abfolutely faffe. See IJeutenint*a 
a^d Mailer's Anfwei ta ^. zp. and the Affidavits. 

Mr. D- — r] He al/o, nuhen he rnjos in Wager River, dijceuntinau" 
ced apd difiouraged awf nvbo /aid it was a Strait and tftut a River, astA 
that there was a Likelihood of there being a RaffagetbutWa;^'^'-''--^^ 

Capt. Middleton.] I never difcountenanced, oat^ on the contraiy^ 
encouraged every one to fpeak and report according to his Judgm^nt'^ 
with Freedom ; unlefs giving fuch Reafons againft a Paibge as \ 
have laid down before. Page 2. are to be looked upon as difcou- 
xaging ; and further, I refer to the Lieutenant's Anfwer to ^uery tp» 
and to the feveral Affidaviu of towns, ^App. XXll.) Von Sobriek, idpp. 
XXIII.) Grant, [App. XXIV.) Cooper, {App. XXV.) 

Mr. D— ] — And during the whole Voyage ktpt a/ljm board him 
as much in the Dark as he could* If then the Captain had not an Incli' 
nation to fupprefs the Difcovery, or to conceal it fofar, as to, make it 
anfwer his Purpofe with the Compkny^ in order to procure a Reward 
from them for concealing it i they fearing, upon a Difcoviry of th€ 
Paffagis being made, that their Right to the Monopoly they at prifont: 
enjoy might be enquired into, and their Trade laid open ; bow came kg. 
to difcourage any on board from making any Enquiry about the Difco* 


' Capt. Middleton ] It has ever been my Endeavours (and waa fo. 
this Voyage efpecially) to inflrufl fuch as I have found ignorant^ 
and to improve fuch as had already made fome Proficienqr* whether 
in the navigating Part, taking Obfefvations of all kinds, or conir 
puting frofn them when made. For the Truth of this* I appeal tfi 
all the Judges of fuch Matters who have known me for above thefe 
twenty Years together ; and I have the Satisfaction to find it acknow- 
ledged to your Lordlhips by the Mailer, in his Anfwers to ^eries 5, 
and zo : I further refer to the feveral Affidavits of Towns (App XXII.) 
Von Sobriek, (App. XXIII.; Grant, (App. XXIV,) and Coofir. (App. 
XXV.) and as for what he furmifesin relation to the Company, I 
Ihall give a full Anfwer to that by and by. 

Mr. D ] And when they apprehended from the Nusnber fl^ 

Whales at the Wefl EndofVl2igtt Riwr, 

Capt. Middleton ] A meer FiCtion. Before he iays, at twenty 
Leagues from the Entrance it was full of Whales. To which I an* 
fwered. That none were feen above Deer Sound, which is but fifteen 
Leagues within the River. Now hf has brought them quite up to 



dm Wdl iMt Unity or iorfy LeagoH, Ao* we oert r ftw ob« 
Mlt^ iB«h* does nj R^it or Jommd make tke kaft meiidoii of any 

Mh © ^3 -^y?«W /*/ Dipth^ thi Wattr^ Bnadth 9f the Strait^ 

^ihi'h tf ihi Co^^ ^tkg Rapidity "tftbi Stream^that then was aProf^ 
ftBtf m Vajpm. 

'tttpt. Middlelion.] Anftvered andconfbted in Pages 14 and 15. 

Mr. D-'^— ^] ^^tkm cam hi tb fay that they were ibuhli tMgued 
Rafcak y • ' 

Kli^t. Middfetott.jl t d^y that I ever iofed any fuch Ezpreffion, and 
ihonid bt glad tb knoir wlience he had his IntellSgence. 

Mr. D ] -* and th»t he would cane the Lieutenant^ broom* 

Jtick the JMafter^ and lajb all others^ fir taking upon them to dij* 
pmte if^ 

Capi. Middleton.] The Lieutenant, iil his Anfwers to ^eries 5 
and 26, difavows his Knowledge of any fixch Threatenings ; fodoea 
pit Mdder, atid disbelifcres khem alfo in his Anfwer to ^ry ; ; 
and thb Men fwear the fame in all their Affidavits. The very 
Authors of this Forgery have thought preper togrant, in their An* 
fwers to ^uety 5, that no body heard any Thing of Threatening but 
Ihemfelves, and I defire to leave it to the Opinion of your Lordfhips^ 
how far they defefvfci to be credited. 

Mr. P— — ] - — And when he, upon account of their Clamour ^ wat 
finder NeceJ^ty ^fendiuo ftp the Ueutenani and MUfer in a fix oar^d 
Roaty fff neaie further Ohfkruations of the Tides^ and to inow whether the 
fThaUt tame into the Rhuer any other Way, 

Capt. Middleton.] I am not confciods that I aded in any Re(pe£t 
' (b las to give Occafion to .Clamour, nor was I fenfible of any. My 
yirhole Intention iii fending the Boat up this laft Time, was to try 
|f there cpuld be foddd any Outlet into the Welcome, befides that 
whereby we entered. Maiiy Years Experience of the fad and 
fudden Efiefts of Cold in this Cdnntry, perfuaded me that this 
could be no unreafohable Stip towards preferving his Msje(ly*is Ships 
and Subjedtf committed to my Care, in cafe Winter fhould fet in 
before we could be able to repafs the Mouth of that River, at that 
Time much clogged with Ice ; and that this was my prindpai Mo- 
tive, will, I humbly preiume, appear unqueiionable to your Lord- 
Ihips, both from my Order of Jnfy 27th to the Lieutenant and 
Matter {j^, IX.) and from their Report of Juguft 1 . at their Re- 

Mr. D '} Why did hf limit them to go no further up than 

he bimfeijfhad been before ^ and to come back with the utmoft D if patch 
that the Nature of the Service would allow (f- 

Caft, Middleton.] They were not fo limitted as he alledges. It was 
^ Blunder of my CIerk*« to write^ as far at Deer Sound in the Order ; 
aiKi I not only told him fo at the going off of the Host, but like- 
ildfe verbally gave the Lieutenant Leave, as himfelf and the Matter 

* £ 2 both 

1 36 ] 

both acknowledge In their Anfwer to Query 3. to proceed op i» be 
as be coald conveniently, without retarding the Ships from failing oat 
of the River, becaufe I intended to fail in a few Day .• For I own» 
that for the Reafons^entioned juft now» I was much more intent on 
getting out of the River, than on further proiecuting the Difcovery of 
a PaiTage within it ; even tho* I had entertained the firongeft Pre- 
fumptionthat there might be onei whereas I hfd very cogent In- 
ducements to think there was none ; and befides, to have fought one 
againil an Ebb, would have been going contrary to my Inftrudtions. 

Mr. D ] — ^ — jhidwhen they exceeded his Orders by ab9U$ 15 

Leagues J and then refortedy that from thence they fav a large CoUeHimof. 
JVatefs Nirth rfthewy with many Iflands and high bluff Points^ mth bro- 
ken Lands on the Weft Side^ as well as on the Eaft^ and that they Jam s 
great many black Whales ^ and did believe there was another Way into the 
Sea^ beftdes that the Ship came in at^ why did he only j from a Bottle of 
Water's being brackijh (which is afo diffuted) which was taken uf near 
an Met where they apprehended there'was fiejh Streap/faiUireSfly out 
of the River t ana quit the t>iJcovery on the ^h rf Auguft, the only 
Month in which the Difcovery could he beft attempted^ ■ 

Capt, Middleton.] Here he would infinuate again, that Whales 
were (een 15 Leagues above D^/r Sound, whereas the jkeport fets 
fbrth, that it was at Deer Sound on their Return, and no where elfe 
that they law them in that River. The Pafiage into the Sea» if any, 
the fame Report fays they did believe was fomewhere on t]|ie Ball Side 
the River, and not Northward or Weftward, as he feems here to 
pretend : It nowhere appears that a Bottle of Water was uken up 
Dear a frefh Inlet ; the Mailer, in his Anfwer to Query i, fkys, that 
the Water was pofitively freiher and frelher as they went higher, and 
the Affiaayits of Hov^ns (App. XXlI.), Vm Sobriek (App. XX5lI.),and 
Grant (App. XXIV.), all fet forth exprefly, that frpm 4 Leagues above 
Deer Sound, to the utmoflHeighth the Boat went, the Water, even in 
Aie Midcliannel of the River, Was but barely brackilh, and that the 
Men all drank of it alongftde, inftead of Beer. The r^ft is anfwered 
already in Pages 1 8 and 28. 

Mr. />- — 3 "— ^-- — and leave thefe Openings^ which were then free 
from Icey which led iowards the South-weft^ ^^fit ^^ North-weft 
undifcovered ? 

Capt. Middleton] If thefe 0|>enings were left undifcovered, how 
came he to apprehend there were any fuch ? But not to infift on his 
"Sibemiciftttit or oth^f Improprieties of Language, th^ Lifcutenant fays 
in his Report of y«^ 25, that he faw feyeral Openings or Coves OA 
the South Side of the River, but that He conld could not get near 
^em for Ice. I havefaid before. Page 20. that we had madefeveral 
Attempts to land on the South.weft Side, but never could fuc- 
ceed for Ice, till the Day before we^ left the River, when I land- 
ed th^re myfelf. I will add here, that when I was myfelf up 

' • with 


t 37 3 

the Bott 4 Leagues above Dar Sooiidy I al(b attempted 
to land on that Side, bat could get no further than half Way over. 

M,.. J) ] — _— 0nd fretmd to Mt for the Pafage Norths 

$sft'9ard, 0nd afterwards Soutb^eaftwards^ by his imaginary frozm 

Capt. Middleion.] }Ay Inft^Uons ordered me al wways to dired 
my Courfe fo as to meet the Tide of Fl6od. I 
did fo here till I could do it no ftrther, finding Council held 
my felf indofed in Ice, and embayed by Land. Aug, 8. Ap. XI. 
I have proved the Reality of the Froxtn Strait in 
Pages 23 and 35. 

Mr. 2) -] *' Horn came he afterwards^ when it was re-' 

fohed inCouncil totry the Weft-Jide of theYf dQomc from Cafe Dobbs 
to Brook G>bham, where he had met with a rafid ^ide going Northward^ 
and where Fox, Norton, and Scrc^gs had /aid there were broken Lands 
and hletsy where great Numters tf frh4les had ieen feen^ and Korton 
had ajfured him that from a Mountain hefaw an (fen Sea ieading to ths 
Southward of the Weft from Whalebone Point: I fay^ how came he in 
good ff^eathcTy and with eafterly U^inds, to keep ^ or 6 Iscagues to th$ 
Eaftward of thofe Head-iands^ and to pafs from Cape Dobbs to Cape 
Fdlerton in the Nighty and afterwards Jlightiy to coaft along theBay to 
Southward of Cape Fullerton, without any Stop but hy lying by in the 
Nighty abho* hejaw many Whales as he paffedalongy never once trying 
the Heighth or JJir^ion oj the <tide^ or fending in his Boats to look for 
any Inkt, ■ 

Capt. Middleton.] That we pafsM from Cape Polis tQ Cape Fnl/erm 
ton in the Afternon before Sunfet, will appear from our Joarnal«» and 
more particularly from our Logg Books. To 
his Repetitions of Fox\ Norton\ and Scro£g*s Jug. 9. 
Authorities, I would anfwer , by aiking if he thinks 
we have QOt confuted their 4 and 5 Fathom Tides by our three^Weeks 
Obfervations upon the Tides in ffager River ? And if he cares nor to 
credit ine in this Matter, let him oonfult his Friend the Lieutenant's 
Journal. ScroggSy for his Part, af&rted at his Return, that there was 
no going much further than the Whalebone Point, which was his no 
ultra, for a Bar of Rocks ; tho* we went 60 Leagues beyond it » 
and 5 Fathom Ebb, we Ifoiind near the fame Place, to be no more 
than 1 6 or 1 8 Feet. What Norton, or, if I rightly remember, his 
Carpenter, advanced about feeing from a high Land within Whalebone 
Pojnt, an open Sea that ftretched . away Southward ef the Weft, 
was, in all Probability, either the River Wager, or elfe Ibme fuch 
large frelh Water Lakes, as myfelf,, the Lieutenant, a^id thofe that 
were with us, faw from the ^fountalns every where about Deer 
Sounds and likewife on the South Shore of Wa^er River, the Day 
I was there,' and' about Cape Frigid , and m ihort, where vqr 
we landed in thefe northern Parts. That it could be no Sea 
ftretching far Weft ward j has been already made appear from the 


t 3« 1 

AoOMwt pynti of Che fiiiHi MtTAh^ tad the JUufn^ilAiid V^yim 
Page a8. The left fcis beenenfwcrad, Rm 1 7» snd I fardier rm^ 
to oor Jonmalsy to the Maftera AaTtvcr to Q«ery 1 3, end to the fe- 
md AffidavitfOf &u»if (^fpiMti. XKiL) Vm SOyisk (Jp. XKIII.> 
und GrAs/ (jffpmd. XXIV. 

Mr. JU~^3 « M aP u^i HfftanSng ih tf^Jkmpiku iiia St WhMhs 
tarn wfy from thi fTtjUwanl i"*^ 

Caff. Middietoii] — -^^^^^ Anfmirei und Mftiidiflfid fttiMt ki 
y^rfM^v Y ^H^ ^^- i^»^ diMkvtd by the UaaCMMilit and 

Mr. Z) ] From tht Accounts of Fox, Nortoe Ml fcrt||ti 

^ ks heing m htknk Lmd'with h/ffs. ^ 

Ci^. Middkc^n.^ — ^ The Invalidity Of their AuAoride^ #M 
ihawa jeftpo#>i ■■■ ■ " • 

Mr. />^^3 r ■■ ,. » <rtti/ /»^ IiifliaM 41^ i^Mif h/fkriMi ^Ni, /i»# 
/sftfff <uwj « J^ C^fp^ ^m 9h mH Arm hffhiSta j^lf^efcipry, wkir^ 
• Capi. Middletoaj — Anfweftd in Page 19. 

Mr. D — 5 — -fJHktf duvAf ifo «jgite? AU n$ifhiit fim^ DiJIpi, itflir 
ii Cwfitltmtimt kekl Mkd ugrtii n for t& fiurfb that Cottfti iht 9uks 
ibire, by Scroggs» knd Fox'i jiuounh, king Wfy rafU^ ond high Tides 
Hfing from 4 iip j Fathoms by their Account^, and Jet thtfe Coa/ts an4 
ihtfe Tides never attempted to be known by himi and thus that njobole 
Oia/t, where the chiefeft Prejumption was of a Pajhge, from all feltiher 
Account Si as well as the prejent, 'was never fearched, but onfy ftsiitd 
mkng en pailaet, with this onh Rem ark in tie Jtutnal^ ** that he faw 
^ the Land from Cape Hope to Brook Cobham, emd knew it to be 4 
f< Main Landy' tho* ly his Journal he pafrd great Part in the Nighty 
and was at near eft ^ or 6 Leaguesfiom the Ifead-land td the Eaftwardi 
and at the fame time owns^ there were deep Bajfs, an4 many IJlauds ik 

Caft. Middleton] Repetitions ag^in repeated, the* anfwered again 
and again; fo often, indeed, that I am really afhamed to trbuUe 
your Lordfhips any more wich keferences to the Anfwers. 
' Mr. D — 3 Why did not the Captain in failing Northward from 
Churchill, when he came vp with the Head-land iu 63^ 20', off 
which he had deep Water and ftrong Tides, and very eaff Weather, as 
"he bad the whole Voyage , why did he not then, I fay, find the Boat 
ajhore to try the Heightb as alfo the DtreBion if the Ttde^ and to try 
whethkr there were any Openings or Inlets in the Land? For fince upon 
his getting to $3^^ 55*, he faw much on Shore to Northward^ he could, 
hfe no Time in making a thorough Search there^ until the he was di' 
mini/bed in the Welceme, that Bay being the principal Place where 
Pox had tUfcoveredfo many Whales f and found fuch high Tides as from 
lSto2i:Foot. - 


(19 3 

Inftruaions direded me, afier I came to Carifs Smann^s Nip^ u> 
fleer Ninrthwe^e^yi, 4^3% ip Win Httlft ihe Nortk-weft Land* al 
fir 92a0MM i^> Wt(ccm$^ or mMbm% MM tlte Latitude of 65 0«- 
grm North, Thie Mr. j>*»«n^*l|new Ul wall, ai aiTiai^ when Im 
js^if^hwi « $i«la Tliovgto tjNUi ibe^ Coaft. ka iMsr ^pieaki fo muck 
^ was W014I1 fiRuniaiAg ;. oika »>yife im^T ^ woold have tdseii 
Care ^ #)r I|M!irD^o«f fkmiiA Mt kair^ hatn deMiira^iii tUaPmnt. 
}^, ifi x^o}!^^! fi^d* tOfc ring Ckajigta on Ajt^ fidui^ and: IPMw 
lii.fiX Sa^» witbouiK Manc)!. Smi^* mr X4»d8» \ aaii &/ oa noae 
«hf^t t)iem iliiM iliUive CmI ataiady* . 

Mr. 2 > *« ■■ ■ 3 ■ ■ ' u ^ ^«e^i <i^ 4^<jf AfhntUt thasht m^htk 
tb$: "TiU ^ ^Wl tlm^ M ^^ JiHf 0a Taefdajr iba 6tb. (^ Jidy» a/ A# 
i)i«0«;. y^«/^ i&# «m mf fo,'Vxn accurate in ob/ervng tie ^Uci as k$ 
0fbt ^ i^tvtik em i "" ^ 

Ca^. MiMl«MH»l W^r })»% bom fvHy wSmnd, md ^udmMf 

Mk. C-it— 3 '^-^Jln(i^4lmrvisk Wftmefj thir$ 0t that Tim bad 
iuM M^, Of ^vsJIai. ^,rc fatujk^ir^jha^ puitv^ iftio tbe Jc$ fth 

G^. Midd^tpn] B^( vmpH it Wf be^n Qonfi^nt viutb my wm 
S^tw tf^ hayqdmrtod. Groan my latm&iof^s, in que^ of a. ?afla§a 
qn tbH CqaA*. w^ere alTo it lia4 Nm giwei^ owr for fo many Years, 

^tid^ifips fo mavy A^iPPAi ^ 

Mi;. Z) . . . ■ ] ^iy (*/ Ar,. )Rli#a /^ 7i4^ carried bim Wtb /mh 
Rajfidiifp iM^ tbA Rruir Wager, ^</ m rf th: Way of the. Tjde^, t$ the 

lhrtkf€^ft,9 if^tioA tf ^^ ^puthio^tf 'wbifh w^s the Side be ought t§ 
h4f^efi4^Mf9iifr4djO' dffifr^cr^ and not the Nerib-t^t Sidt^ mle/s be of- 
ftre^eeidid ke migbfjifiever tio nmb^ by going bigker Hp, mtb tbe Tide i 
for in cafe be found lohf 09 the Spfftb-^u^Sfde, he coM mi tbetf.coaceai 
ibo, Paffl^e from bis Officers and Crew. -^mr 

C^pi. Middie^onJ When w^ iit^^tm^ Wager Biv^ and indeed 
diuing tbci|fe(E( Weidu^ we. werA there, as I have faid hchn^ 
we found it impra^icable to come n^ar tkarSouth-wdl Shore, exoepe 
Ofice with the fioa^i and wieire glad at any &ate to get the Ships 
intofome fafe Roadfteed, as may be feen in our JournaU* I3th»i4ih 
and 16th of Jutj^ Thp Pink waa in the moft imminent Danger* 
i^eing d^ven up and down by throe fucpafiiye Tides, and feveral 
TioMf carried (q, clofe upon Iflands, that the Men might have 
jomp'd on Shore, as the MaA^'fi and Mate's Journals exprefs more 
particularly : Nor was the Ritnace*% Condition much better ; for all 
Hands were forced to be employed, in fleering her, and fending off 
the Ice two or three Tides together, whilft ihe lay at Anchor. 

Mr. Z>— "^3 ■■ ■ Why. did be prevent tbe Lieutenant^ s taJUng along 
mtb bim from Churchill, one of tbe Fa{lorf$ Men, wbo perfe^fy undeir- 
fioedtbe Northern Indian Language^ who -would ba*ue been of great Ufk 
Sfpon tbi Difcoverf, wii» the IJeuteisaat told bim^be vfQuld taki all tbg 


f ♦• 


Miami, in tmjt wff CmfUm wms maditfittfiKi ii WMtfir th Gml 

tf ibi Sertnce. 

Cmpi. Middleton] I find the Mafier has giveft t very pertineftt 
Anfwer to thif» in his Anfwer to Query i6« For my own Part, I 
fay, that near tw6 Months btlbie the Northern Indians came down, 
I did, in the Lieotenant^s Hearing, exprefs a Defire of ohtaining this 
Ferfen of the Company, in cafe none ihould ^ome that Year, for 
they ibmetimes miff. But they arriving at their nfoal Time, I coold 
only importune the Governor to prevail on two of tjiem, who faeft 
knew the Country, and could fjp^ak the Lsjiguage of feveral Na- 
tions, to go along with us ; togetfier with a third Indian of thenr 
own, ivho could converfe with thofe others very intelligibly, having 
trevdled with them two Winters, and nnderftood Eng^ very wtU 
befides. To- procure this Favour, I found it requifite to make the 
Governor very confiderable Frefents, who exaAed alfo a ftriA Fro^ 
•nife from me, that I would return the two Northern Indians ^ort^ 
fomewhere about WkaU Cove, or Brook CMam, laden with Goods; 
and furnilh'd with Arms for their Defence. As for the other In- 
dian, whom I had known from a Boy, I had leave both from the 
Governor and his Farents to bring him home to England, if I 
thought £t; which I di4, and he foen after died of the Small-pex. 
Now, had I peimitied the Lieutenant 10 have imprefid that other 

Man, or had otherwife attempted to take him 
Lords Commif' away by Force, 1 ihould have afled contrary to 

fmers Order 9f my InftruAions, which required me expitfly. 

May 29, Af. IL not to give any Difturbance to the Ships or 

Sloops of the Hsidfon\ Bay Company; for that 
Man was Linguift to one of their Sloops for the Northern Trade : 
Befides, I could not have promifed myfelf any Service from one thus 
compulfively dragged away againft his Inclination. 

Mr. D ■ ] Query, Whether tb$ Northern \nA\tns9n board him 
didnot fmnt out to go into the Wejtern Shore, between 62 and 64 De* 
greet, before be was inckfed'm the Ice, which was a ftrong Prefnsnftion 
that then was an Inlet tbereaboufs ?» 

Copt. Middleton] I abfolutely deny the Truth of what is infinuated 
in this Query» 

Mr. /)■ ] fFbf did be, when the Indians who were beginning to 

under/tand and Jpeak the Engliih Language, were defirous of coming to 
England, fut them t^bore againft their Inclinations, in a very indifferent 
Boat, on an IJland feme Leagues from the Main, at a great Diftanct 
from their Country, unlefs to, prevent their gi*Oing an Jcconuiof what tbejf 
Jtnew in relation to that Country and Sttmit, in cafe they cami to fpeak 
the £ngli(h Tongue? 

Capt. Middleton] They exprefled no Defire of {tt\Xi% England 
that 1 know of; and if they had, what would have excufed me fo 
the Governor, or to myfelf, for bringing them hither ; when, Iss I had 
•bferved juft now, I had fo roleninly engaged to knd them fomewheve 


ibadt f^aU Cmk or llrook CMdm. The i«f Is contmdifted hj 
the Mailer^s Anfwer to ^ty 1 8, and by the fereral Affidavits of 
tiWHs, CAfp. XXII.} Gm;^/, (i^f/jT. XXIV.X and C•<?/r^ (if/#. 
XXV.) ^ 

Mr. !>*— -^] ff^kf did hi, mobiM emfdefed hy the Gtrotmrnnt ift 
fi ufe/ul a Dijcovi^, after havht^ heek •fftred 5060 1. fr9m the 
C^mpAitf t9 fiit the Kingt SemHa, •r ta fee&ch fir the Pdffage iff 
I>avis*s StraitSy or any ether PlutM when' it was wflikefy H' find it, 
mterinte am Agreewfihtt, or at leaji accept of eui Offer made by Sir Bibye' 
h^k^ their Gevirtebr, of' gMMf him tnOe Tears Safa/y, not t$ do aitf 
Thing to inter/ore' with their Trade ; andnfon this gave art Order, under 
fiivere Ponahies, thM none of his Cre*v Jhoutd hann the Uafi Inter- 
tourfe or Trade *with the Natives ; and whether upon dding thif,' 
Mnd concealing the Faffage, he might not have had greater Expeda* 
Hose from the Compmstf i and whether p stpotf his Return, his findif^ 
Letters immediately to the Company, and defiring that none of his 
People ^ouid communicate ctnf Thing about the Pop^ or Difiovety. 
for feme Time, and even to concept all material Articles from the 
Gentlemhn vtho projeffed the Voyage ^ until he forced it out of him from 
Ohfervations from bis yoamaU after keeping it from him fir three . 
ifefm/^f , ana by repeated Letters aJpsHng him, the Whole was im*- 
frafUcabUr ; wbetb^ this, I fe^^ did not look liki a Dtftgrs to make' 
his own Terms with the Company, before bt woiild podfli/h his Joitmtd $ 
for if all he had in Fienst voai only tht fivo Tears Salary, not to 
dkmnify theor Trade, and this had otrlf a Referehti to his Crew9' 
toot trading voith the Natives, the revealing vthat he knew concerning 
the Paffago and Vyagt, Wiidd have been of no Detriment to him' with 
the Competnjt. 

Gstp^. MidA^toA.] Thli M Paragraph connins a Repeflti6ii'» 
lifter his ufoal Manner, of fundr^ Matters which he had dwelt 
long enough apon' before; particularly Complaints oi my being 
aitrcd 5-^00 /. frofff the Compansr to qmt the King's Service, or aC 
lealt of acceptin|^ of (wo Years Satkfjr, nbr to do any Thing to in- 
tfli^e wtcb thefr Trade i aH which I haye- falfy^ anfwered before, 
anid» I hope, to-yocnr' Lordftfps SatlsFaflidn; But now the Snake iti 
the Gfa^ begins to Aew himfeff; for be fun^^ up all wich this 
grand CompFdint, that Upon this I gave ah Of-der, under fevere Pir- . 
nolties, that none of my Crew /hould have the leaf IntercoUrfe, or trade 
^fhthe Hktives, My Lords, I have already faid, I was bouad in 
Duty and Gratitude to do this, whether the Company rewarded me or 
not. Permit me here, my Lords, to recriminate in my Turn, and 
oBferve, that by ihh Means the Gentleman who projedcd the Voy- 
age, as he afi^fts to ftile hhnfelf, as well as his Agents on board, ' 
met with no fmall Difappointment. Had I allowed thenr Liberty 
to infringe the Company ^ Rights, and mike- fuch- Depredations for 
their private Benefit, a» they feemed to intend, I am* pcrfiiaded I 
ihould have heard none of thcie Complaints fo often reiterated ; 
nothing of my Fri^ftiip i;o the Company; of Rewards and 

F - Bribes 

[ 42 ] 

Bribes from the Company ; of endeavouring to make my ovm 
Terms with the Company ; of great ExpedUtions from the Com- 
pany ; all which are Alegations newly trumped up» and manifeilly 
the Eflfedls of Spleen and Difappointipent. Does not this (hew, that 
the Projedor of the Voyage had the Advantages of a clandeftine 
Trade, as much or more at heart, than the publick Utility of a Dif- 
coveryf Whence otherwife (hould arife his Endeavours to ftig. 
matize the Company, and diflblve their Charter ? Whence hit 
unwearied Application to prejudice my unblemiih*d Character with 
your Lordlhips, or the Publick ? Whence his Projeft of a new 
Settlement, and a further Profecution of the Difcovery, but to in- 
trutl it with fuch as ihould not baulk his .ExpedUtion in other 
Matters ? 

ji Summary Static/ Mr. D- 

*s Obje^onsy mud Captain Mid- 

dlctonV Anfwers. 

THE only Places where Mr. D prefumes there may be a 
PafTage from Huifon'sBay to the Weftern Ocean of America^ 
are on the Coaft betwixt Brook Cohham^xxL Latitude 63?, or through 
Wager River, by hiim fuppofed to be a Strait. 

From Brook Cebham to Whale-bone Point has been fo frequently 
and fo carefully coafied and fearched, that all hopes of meeting with 
any Inkt, that may lead to a PaiTage any where throughout all that 
Extent, has been given up for at lead an hundred Years paft. How- 
ever, Capt. Middktony in his Return back jFrom the Froxen Strait 
to Brook G^i&A;», very carefully re-examined all this Shore, keeping 
as dole into it as the Iflandsand Rocks would permit him withfafety; 
and faw all the main Land, and Bottoms of the Bays, as is explained 
in the Log Book, which (hews the Coaft and Diftance. failed zvttj 
Hour, in hailing off or on to deepen or fhoalden the Water, which 
his Journal exprefles lefs particularly, efpecially from Whalehone^Foint 
to Brook Cobham^ (for the reft of that Courfe northward he had tra- 
vers'd outward bound.) He had very little hazy Weather, except Jo 
the Night, and then he lay by till Day-light, and hailed in as near 
the Shore as hedurft ; fo that it was impoffible for him to mifs any 
Inlets, where there could be any hopes of a Pai&ge. Off Cape Fuller* 
tQH, he met with Rocks and broken Ground five Leagues diftant* 
which forced him to- hall further off to deepen his Water, and lay to 
for moderate clear Weather between the Shores. But when it cleared 
up, he ftood in N. and N. b. W. into 40 odd Fathoms : If he came 
within that Depth, he fell into broken Ground, fudden Shoaldings, 
Riplings and Overfalls. Between Latitude 64? and 63^, he had 
better Soundings, and came nearer the Land, tho* at Night he was 
obliged to keep a League or two further out, and drive, itanding in 
&ore again by Day. He was never more than four or five Leagues 



from Shore bat onoe, and that was towarda Morning in Expeftatioa ; 
cf Day-light. In moft other Places, he was not above two or 
three Leagues from Land, and in nine Fathom Water off the Head 
Land in 63^ 20'. He obTervM all the north Side of the WeUome to 
be high Land, and it appeared very near at four or five Leagues 
diftance, as far as Brook Cobham. The Reafon he did not fend his 
Boat aihore to try the Tides, was becaufe moll of his Men had loft 
the Ufe of their Limbs, or were otherwife To fick, that if he had 
manned the Boat, the remaining Hands would have been in{ufficiei\( 
to have worked the Ship, and handed the Sails. However, the 
Tides were fo ^r from being negledUd by him, that he tried them 
frequently almbil t,\tiy Hour ; as alio the Currents, which he could 
do as well on board, or in a Boat near the Ship, in the Channel, and 
much better than within Head Lands, or near Iflands, which by 
forming Eddies produce an Irregularity in them. 
' This Account ofCapt. Middlit§n\ Examination ef the aforefaid 
Coaft, does not only appear from the Log-book to be true, but it 
further circumilantially confirmed as to Particulars by the Mafter, in 
hisAnfwer to Queries 12 and 13, and and by the Affidavits. of Tl 
Tiiwnsy U. njen So6rieA, and G. Grant, tho* it be contradided by Mr. 
D *— — 's three Evidences ; one of which, •vis. the Lieutenant, ac- 
knowledges it all in his Journal. 

Now it is juft to remark, that tho' Mr. /)— had himfelf the 

drawing up of Capt MM/etonh Inilru£lions, yet they do not men- 
tion a fingle Word about looking for a PaiTage, or examining 
the Tides all along this Coaft. Is it not then a ftrong Argument, 
that Capt. Middkton had the Difcovery very much at heart, that, 
at a time, when, on account of the very fick and helplefs Condition 
of moft of the Hands, it had otherwife been both defirable and 
prudent for him to have made homewards as faft as he could, 
he ihould, as appears from the Council held the eighth Day of 
Augufi, himfelf propofe a Refearch of this Coaft for a FafTage 
which had been fo often attempted in vain by others, and perform 
it fo carefully too a^ is fet forth above, when^he was not otherwife in 
point of Duty held to it atalL 

This Point being difcufsM, it remains now only to examine, 
whether a Paflage may be reafonably prefumM upon through Wager 
River, or not? 

Mr. D — — 's Reafim that Wager River is a S traits and no/re/h 

Water River, ^ 

Reafon i.] From its Increafe and Depth in advancing from its En^ 

^»/] This is frequent in frcfli Water Rivers, as all thbfe, efpe- 
claUy, know, who are acquainted with the ^ov/^j/^.and Nornuegian 
Coafts, where the frefh Rivers, or Ferries, as they call them, are 
often not above ten or twelve Fathoms at the Entrancej and yet they 

F 2 pxtend 

r 44] 

epi^nd to yaft Bn$iih» ai^ 4ificoirer no amnad jy«i wUk Um «$ 

Cwo or three fctmdred Fatlioiiu. 

Hcafon a.] #>*« th Hei^t ff thi MiigUofimg IfiMd^ 

Jkf, The Lan^s about the afore(aid Fenrics are foil as bi|(h as my 
Capt. MiddUton &w near ^tf|r/r Riycr. 

Rcafon a] #f«st /A/ Wanff Trett 0Bi(SMu m oay Lands 9i^ 
ii, M/uch 4pr/ ^Iw^/mmdm ibi/mi f mori mrtbtr^ Lf^iMii ^ 
Mfr^ Watir Rivirs. 

Jm/,} All chofe who have tmvd^d this Cpuatry between Lati^ 
$8^ and 66^ 30' by Land, agree, that higher than 61* they fai^r 
neither Tree nor Shrub, bat only Mofs f eteo nttong fiefii Rive|:s 
and Lakes. 

Keafon 4] Fr%m UshHngfuUrf U^i Wbaifif &«/r^ ««^ SiA4f9t^ 
fis, ai t^efUyi Uagttt ^Wfetki Entrtma, imth HumUrs ff Wbaks «f 
iise nueft End, nvhen 99m nAtirt J^u hehvo Deer Sbond, gr^tbm iH 
MMOhr^kbt Rhftr, oriamMj Paris if Hadfon*/ Siraiu ar Bsiy, ixapf 
4^ finok Cobkaoi, btUfg anhdtaakn ib^t ibijf ^U c§mi §^ tftbi Se^ 
jfiron^ ibi 'Wijhward. 

4«/] It does not appeir fre^i any Joomab, Reports, or 
^AnAvers, that otte Whale was fcen higher than Dtir Smidp which 
is but fUttfu Leagues up ; whereas the weft End is above thirtjr 
leagues ; or that one Sea-horfe or Seal was ten in any Fut of 
fhe Riret. But that (everal were ieen juft without the Mouth of the 
River in the Weicmi, is attefled by the Logg-beok, and by tho 
i^fidavits of Tmvw, Vom ScMsA and Grafii. Aid Captaiii Middkim^ 
has M-aded ^ frefh Whalebone in all Parts of th^ Bay and Siraks, 
where the E,^maux frequetit ; which coidd not be, if the Whales,' 
(rom whence they get it, were not killed there 1 becaofe, in ten oe 
l^elv^ Days after they are dead, the Bone all dr<»s torn their 
Mouths ; all which amounts together, to almoft a Den^nftration» 
fjliat the Whales both in the Bay and Wtigtr River come from the 
Northeaft, which is alfo fomewhat . confirmed from the great Num« 
her of In^^ Storehoufirs of Oil, Fin and Blubber, not above eigUf 
Leagues up, on the north -eaft Coafl of the River; whereas their 
proper Habitations are on the Main^ on the other Side the River \ 
Moreover, if thefe Whales came oat of any Sea from the weftward, 
they would have been Cecn in plenty the higher they had gone up, 
whiqh Was not fo. However, Conclufions drawn fVom Whaies- being 
ieen in any Place, are at the beft but very precarious. 

Reafoa 5-.3 ErMi ir^hn Lands nortb-weftwards, and a gnat 
CoUeSiion of IVattrs fan at a diftana, full of Iflandi^ on tbe fiuth* 
njDift Side, 

AnJ^ It is moft likely, that thefe watery Spaces ieen at a di(hmce, 
are the fame fort of Lakes of melted Snow from the Mountains, 
as were every where feea from the £miaencies they afceaded in 

£45 3 

Ijbat Couittry to oyerfprcad the ValUeit But be diat u it w91, 
there was no coi^mg near tbem for the Rapidity of the Water-£dli» 
that hindered the 6oat frpm going higher op than ihe did, and the 
jmmctiit Qoantities of loe along the fbuthwefi Shoie, 

(:4^mn MiD»LET#vV il]S4S0NS ^i^^ Wager Rivir hu m 

Jieaf^ I. Bequife ihe Tide of Flood comes ia at its Month froa 
fhe Eaibvard, ( 

R^afin 2, Becaafe it flowed eighteeii Feet at the Entrance* bnt 
thirteen at Detr Sound, and the higheft the Boat could go for Water<^ 
jfalls, no more than five or £x Feet. 

Ri^fin 3. ^ecaufe the Water wai fpund to be fo frefh in the 
]^id channel above Ifeer Soutul, that the Men freely drank |t along* 
^e the Boat inftoid of Beer } and the hjigher they went they found 
it the firefter. 

Rii^tt 4* Becanfe no Whales were feen there, bat at the En- 
hance o( (h$ River and at fiar Soundf this bejng an Argument that 
they eagie npt from any Sea to the Weflward, but entered by fome 
inl^t from the northreafl:. 

Ref^n 5 . Becaufe Travellers, which have gone fron) Churchillbf 
Land, as high as the fr^^f Circle^ affirm, that they met with neither 
ialt Water Riyer, nor Sea, in any Part of their Journey. 

P B J E C T I Q N S W QU E R I £ S upon Ptints of CtrnduB 


pbje£tipn 1. A Lar^e Optning on the fouth-nneft Side «/ Wager RwiTt 
XJl ^^^^^ ^^^ Luutenant fit np'ttb bis Compafi Jrom a 
flact near Deer Sound, luas never Med into.' 

AnfwerJ\ The Lieotenant^s unintelligible Paper about this Af- 
fair, will be found \a the Appendix (XXX.) 'Tis hard to conceive 
how, on the Bearings he mentions, any Obje^ fhould be feen from 
his Station but on the eail Shpre, the fame on which he ftood, the 

River lying nearly N* and S. by Coq^pafs. Mr. D fays, it wat 

oj>pofite the Place where ipoft of the Whales were feen, which there- 
fore fhould be oyer againft Deer Sound i but the Captain could diltia« 
guiih nothing thereabouts, which in the leaft anfwered the Defcrip- 
tion. He many times attempted to land on the fouth-weft Shore, bnt 
never could for Ice, except once ; and then he perceived nothing 
but high mountainous Land, with large Lakes of melted Snow in 

Obje^lioA. 2.] Ihe Difcovery was quitted in the Beginning of Auguft, 
n/isben all the Ice n^tas dijbhued in Wager Ri<uer, tbe^t Month being the 


[ 46 ] 

Jn/cvir,'] The Difcovery was not quitted before the 15 th of 
Auguft^ when they left Brook Cobham, If. Capt. Miadhttm had 
fiayed longer, he could not reafonably have expedled to repafs the 
Straits with his poor difabled Crew. A Ship not many Years ago 
was frozen up near Mansfield in the Middle, of Sfptimber^ and her 
Crew almoft perifliM with cold. The Straks are ufually pafs'd the 
latter £nd of Augufi^ or Beginning of September ^ and even thea 
• the Sails and Rigging are fo hard frozen, that it cofts them fome 
Days to fet any part of them. No Ship of the Company's maft 
attempt to return after the tench of Settemberi and till a little 
above twenty Years ago a Voyage was feldom made without Wir- 

Objeftion 3.] The Opening amon^ the I/lands to tbe mrtb-nvefitvard 
beyond the Place the Lieutenant nutnt to in Wager River^ ivas not iu" 
quired into, although tbe Lieutenant and Mafter^ under their Hands, rt" 
ported there nvas another Wtry into the Sea than the Way the Ship^ iH" 
ieredj by <which the Whales cami there, ^ 

Anf'vcers'\ The Lieutenant and Mailer, in their Report* fay7 that 
they believe there is another Way into the Sea befides that which 
the Ships came in at, ibmewhere on the eaft Side (not on the N. W, 
Side) and that they imagine the Whales come through vthis PafTage; 
Indeed, they were ient up to look for fuch a Pafiage, and to meet 
the Flood, for fear the River*s Mouth fhould not be clear of Ice 
before the fetting in of Winter, and fo all perifli there. For after 
the Captain, for the Reafons before-mentioned, had given up all 
hopes of a PaiTage through this River, he would have parted with 
all he had in the World to have been out of it again. 
' Objediion 4.] 7# ha^ve aifoided being carried back again into th§ 
Ri<ver Wager, they ought to have kept their Cour/e tovuards Cape 
Dobbs, that the Tide of Flood might hanje carried them to the South- 

' Jn/wer.l Then they could not have avoided being forced afhore 
among all the Ice that lay off Cape Dobbs, or again into the River; 
li nee they could lay only W. S. W. and S. W, on the other Tack, 
the Wind being S. and S. S. £. and the Flood coming ftrong from 
the E. and E. b. N. 

Objedion 5.] The Carpenter aud Gunner *went ajhore •«/ Cape 
Frigid, to vieijo the Land and fuppofed ^roTJcn Strait i the Carpenter 
and Gunner nvent to a Hill a Milt and a half further than the Cap^ 
tain and Cleik, and upon their Return, as the Clerk affirms, they Jatd 
tbe Hill ihey <were upon fivas an 1/Iand, but the io*w Beachy Land t» 
the Jbuthivard of them, *was joined to the. eaft crn and^ northern Land, 
^which joined the ijuefi Land, and formed the Bay above Czpe Hope; 
and that there was no Fro'zen Strait to fouth-eafiivard of them, as thf 
Captain has laid donJon in bis Journal, 

Jn/nver.] When the Carpenter and Gunner returned, the Captain 
(Iriftly examined them, as to the Particulars they faw : Whether 
they v(esc pofttively fure that the low Beach joined to the Land they 



flood xipon ? They i^ur*d me it did, tnd that they uwre upon «m 
liland cut off from the Beach, and that the Fn%tn Strait, of whid& 
they delivered the Captain a kind of Map or Plan the next Morn* 
sag on board, was at lead twelve Leagues wide from the Eaft to 
the Weft Side, at the Mouth or narroweft Part. This Dcdara* 
tion of the Carpenter and Gunner is alfo attefted by the Matter in 
his Anfwer to Query 1 1 . Befides, if there be no fuch Strait, whence 
fliottld the ftrong Tide of four Miles an Hour come, which they 
met with there, and which the Lieutenant obferved to force tho 
Ships very rapidly to the Nor th-eaft- ward. 

Objeaion6.] He (the Captain) took Care that nothing JhouU hi 
mentioned in the Lqgg Book hut what he Janu and direStd, and /aid h§ 
nmuld hreak up all their Boxes that kept Journah^ and take their 
Booh and Papers from them. He alfo^ wohen he mjas in Wager Ri- 
v/r, difceuntenanced and difcouraged attf *who faid it war a Strait 
and not a River, and that there was a Likelihood of there heing a 
Paffage that Way^ and during the whole Voyage kept all on hoard him 
as much in the dark as he could ; threatened to cane the Lieutenant ^ 
broomftick the Mafter^ and la/h aU others, for taking upon them to dif 
pnte about a Paffage, 

Anjwer'\ The Captain »s apprehenfive, that the Logg Book will 
rather be thought to abound, than to be defedive in Particulars. 
He never difcountenanced, but, on the contrary, always encouraged 
every one in keeping Journals, and in fpeaking and reporting ac« 
cording to their Judgment, with the utmoft Freedom; always in- 
ilrudling fuch as he found ignorant, and endeavouring to improve 
thofe who had made feme Proficiency. The Lieutenant, in his 
Anfwer to Query 20, fays, that he never heard of the Captain^s 
threatening to take away Books and Papers, or giving Orders that 
nothing (hould be entered into the Logg Book which (hould give 
Hopes of a Paffage ; and denies that the Captain ever difcounte^ 
nanced or difcouraged him : And in his Anfwer to Query 5, he fays, 
that he knows nothing of the Threatening, Captain Middleton is faid 
to have made Ufc of. The Mafter, in his Anfwer to Query 5, fays, 
he never heard of the lead Threatening about the Difcovery in any 
Part of the Voyage; but that the Captain always treated every Body 
too well ; that he never hindered them from keeping what Ac- 
count they would, being , always ready to inllrud any Officer that 
would ask him,^and fhevved feveral how to keep Jodrnals that had 
never been at Sea before ; that he has heard the Captain declare he 
would put up with all that could be endured, rather than the Dif* 
covery (hould be baulk'd. And in his Anfwer to Query 20, he fays, 
the Captain feemed on all Occaiions heartily to encourage the Dif- 
covery, and was ever free in communicating, and inllrufting every 
Officer and Man on board ; that both the Lieutenant and himfelf 
had received great Benefit from his Inllrudions,- and mud acknow- 
ledge it ; and that to reprefent the Captain in other Light, he i% 



Aormiglilf litiiiid, it dahg him batfiafOM Injaftioe. tit Afl^ 
d«vitt of i*. T^wm, IT. Vm SAriik, Q. Qrmm^ and f. Cnpn-i d<i 
ail coatradift what die Ctptain if hew charged with, and abari- 
dMtly coBirm the Mafter^s Accoant of hit Behaviour. And it is 
eMervabie, that the Inventors of the Romailee ahoul Thieateningi 
eonfMs that ao body heard it bot themfelTes. 

Obje^Uon 7.] Whinthi Cmptastt, m AccomH^f tMr Clamairt ^ums 
mniirk thctjjity vf Jmding up the iJiutenant and Mafiir UdfixoaPd 
Muttf f mak9 fiu^ikir Obfif^ikns ff thi Ttdti^ tmd io kmw nffhethet 
tbt Whales came into the Ritfer anf other Way, nvhy did he Hmit theM- 
H gjt no farther uf than he himfilf had been before^ and to come back 
mfith the utmtfi DifpaHh that the Nature of the Sermce njo^nU allovt 

AnfiiMr^ The Qiptain is not confdous that he a^ed, in tXLj 
Kefpedt, fo as to give Occafion to Claounir, nor was he lenfible dl 
any. His whole Intention in fending up the Boat this Time, was 
to try if there could he found any Outlet into the TVekome^ be- 
Mes that whereby they entered. Many Years Experience of thif 
lodden and fad S^As of Cold in this Country, perfutded him that 
this was no unreafonable Step towards prefervkng his Majei^y^s. 
Ships and Subjedls committed to his Care, in caie Winter Ihould 
let in before they could be able to repafs the Month of the River, at 
Aat time much cloggM with Ice ; and that this was hit principal Mo- 
tive, may appear both from his Order of Jul) 27, to the Lieutenant and 
Matter, and from their Report of Auguft \ . at their Return. The Cap- 
tain denies that thefe Officers were fo limited as is pretended in this 
Query. It was a Blunder of his Clerk, to write, as far as Deer Souni, 
in the Order ; and he not only told him fo, at the going off of 
the Boat, but he likewife verbally give the Lieutenant Lmvc, as 
himfelf and the Mafter Xyoth acknowledge, in their Anfwer to' 
Query 3. to proceed up as far as he could conveniently, without 
letarding the Ships from failing out of the River ; he being, fof^ 
the Reafons juft now mentioned, more intent oi^getting out of the 
River, than on further profecuting the Difcoveiy of a Paf&ge with- 
in it, even tho* he had entertained the ftrongett Prcfomptioli that 
there might be one ; whereas he had vtty cogent Reafons to think 
there was none : And befides, to have fought one againft an Ebb, 
would have been going contrary to his Inftrudions. 

Objeftion 8.] Whf did he, onfy from a Bottle rf Water* s being 
brackifi? (which is alfo difputed) nvbich twos taken up near an Inlet 
njcbere they apprehended there ivas a frejb Strgam^ fail direQly out of 
the River? 

Jnfwer.'] It nowhere appears, that a Bottle of Water wis taken 
up near a frtlh Inlet. The Mafter, in his Anfwer to Query i. fays, 
the Water was pofitively frelher and freftier as they went higher 
and higher ; and the Affidavits of 7". Tonvns, TJ, Von Sobriek, and 
G. Grant, all fee forth exprefly, that ^m four Leagues above 


t 49 ] 

jigir SDiind, to the ntmojl Height the Boat went, the Water, even 
in the Mid-channel of the River, was but barely hrackifh, and that 
ihe Men HH drank of it alongfide inflead of Beer. 

Objedlion 9.] JfJy did he^ luben the Tidt carried hitti mtith Jiitb 
^Rapidity into tht Ri'vir Wager, get out of the Way of the Tidt to tbi 
North-eufif inftefid of the South-weft Side^ ivhich was the Side he oagbi 
to hante endeavoured to dtfcover^ unkfs he afpribended he might difcover 
ioo muchf by going ' higher up with the Tide ? 

Anpwer'] Wfien they iirft entered Wager River, and indeed da- 
ring the whole three Weeks they were there, they found ic im- 
{>ra£U«tbIe to come near the South-weft Shore, except once with 
the Boat ; and were glad at any Rate to get the Ships into fome 
Jloajdileed, as may be feen in the Journals July 1 3f 14 and i ^. 

OI^e(fti0|p 10..] Why did be present the Lieutenant $ taking along nvitb 
iim from Chnrdiill» we rf the faBorfs Men, who perfealy underftood 
the Northern Indian Languags^ when the Lieutenant toU him ffe would 
take all the Blame, in cafe any Complaint moae made tf it t 

An^er^ The. Captaii^ expreiflBKl a Deiire of obtaining this Per* 
i^of the Comps^iyy in cafe the nonhern Indians ihould not come 
down that YeaM^. But they arriving, he (;ould only importune thjB 
Governor to prevail on two of thev* who beft knew the Country, 
.j^nd CQttld fpeak the Language of feveral Nations, to go along 
witkthem, together with a third Indian of their own, who conid 
^oonverfe with the other two very intelligibly. Ihe Governor 
would not comply without a ilrid Promife of fettiog the two Nor« 
^rn Indiam i^oie at their Return, fopiewhere above Whale Cove^ 
or Brook Cobhaptt laden with Goods, and fumiih*d with A^ma 
a|id- Ammunition} which was done accordingly. Had the Lap- 
[tajn permitted- that other Man to have been imprefled or forced 
away, he would haycf a^edagainft his Infirudions, which ordered him 
jiot to give any Pifturbance to the Ships or Sloops of the Com- 
pany : Now this Perfon was an Interpreter to one of their Sloopa 
^r the northern Trade. 

Obje^on 11.] Why did be, when the Indians who were beginning 
$0 usuterftani and Jpeak the £ngtilh' Lat^ysage were dejirous of coming 
Jo J^i^glaiid, put them en Jbore agair^ their Inclinations^ in a *uer^ 
ifsiifferent Boat^ on itn f/land fome Leagues from the Main, at d great 
Diftance from their Country, unlefs to prevent their giving an Account 
ef is^hat they Aue*w in rtiation to the Country ana Strait, in cafe thcf 
€ame to Jpeak the Engliih Tot^ue ? 

Anfwer^ They ejcprefs'd no Defire of feeing England tha^ ev^r 
came to the Captain*s. Knowledge ; and if they had, what cpuld 
have cxca(ed.hi|n to the Governor or to him&lf, for bringing thqm 
hither, whcn^ as was juft now obierved, he had fdemhly engaged 
to land them fomewhere about Whale Ccve or Brook Cohham t Ihe 
Mailer in his Anfwer to Qjiery 18, fays, the Boat was a good one, 
and- that they had been taught how to manage her 1 that they (iud 

G they 


Aey knew their Wfty home yery well ; that they were fafficiently 
fortified againft all the Men in the Country, having Fire-arms, well. 
ftock*d with Ammunition, and 'more of tytry thing than they could 
well carry. And that they were but 250 Miles from their own 
Country or the Company's Fadoiy, which is nothing for an In- 
Man to travel. The Affidavits of T. Towns, G. Grant, and T. Cooper^ 
fpeak much to the fame Purpofe, and fay beiides, they went away 
highly pleafed^ without any Manner of Compulfion! 

ObjeSiions and Surmizes about Bribery anjivered. 


Obje6lion 1 .] The Captain, hefin be ivent the Vtyage, noas offered 
hy fome rf the DireSon of the Company 5000 1, to return to their Serr 
vice, and not got the Ftyage ; or to go fearch for the Paffage in "D^lvWs 
StraitSf or in arty other Place hut *where he was direSed; to which 
he anjwered, he might take their ^^ey and he vf no Service to them ; 
for the Gentleman who had proje8ed the Voyage^ had it fo much at 
Heart, that if he did not go, be would get fimebodf elfe to go ; hut he- 
fore be bad done with it, he hofed to go in a Coach and fix ; to which 
one of them anjwered, he hoped to fee him at the Devil firft. 

Jn/hver.'} The Captain denies that any of the DireAors, either 
by themfelves or others, ever offered him 5000/. or one Shilling, 
upon any Account whatfoever; and granting fuch an Ofier was 
iliade, the Ol^eAor acquits the Captain of any Crime, by the Anfwer 
he fays he made (or rather, that he in this Place is fo kind to midce 
for the Captain) vix. that he might take the Money, and be of no 
; Service to them> i^c. What follows about his Hopes of riding in a 
Coach and Siit, and fome body's wilhing him at the Devil, is fach 
Trumpery that he can't think the Lords Commiffioners of the Ad- 
miralty believe it defcfrves a (erious Anfwer, and he is furprized the 
* Projeaor himfelf fhoUld think fo. But granting the Offer were made, 
can. the Refufal. of fo large a Bribe redound to the Captain's Dif« 
' reputatioYi ? 

Objedlion 2.] T^^y afterwards, hy Sir Bibye Lake their Governor, 
promised him two Teafs Salary at 1 20 1. per annum, not to do any 
Thing to prejudice or oh/truff their Trade, which he fays was only upon 
Account rf preventing his Crew^s trading in the Bay, 

Anfwer, 1 The Refufal of 5000 /. which the Objeflor acknow- 
ledges, makes it altogether abfurd to fuppofe, that he ihonid accept 
' of ?6 paultry a Confideration as two Years Salary at 1 20 /. per annum 
to ncgledt his Duty in profecuting the Difcovery, when the vtrj 
fame Perfons were ofiering him 5000/. to return to a very beneficial 
Employment. The Captain grants that the Company recommended 
the Proteaion of their Trade to him : It was a natural and a refon- 
able Requeft ; and he thought it the Duty of his Station to maintain 
them, as far as he had Power and Authority, in their jail Rights 



and PirivHegeif and not to f lander them by trading with the Na- 
.lives himfelf, or fufiering others under him to trade with themt 
whatever Advanuges might have accnied by it. > 
. ObjeAion 3.] *f is plain Rewards 9r Bribis nJD§ri offered to him t§ 
freveni bis ferfe&ing tb$ Difcoverf. 

Jnfijoired,1\ Does Dpt the Obje^or make it alfo as plain that he 
refufed Bribes, if any were ofiered? But how comes it to be fo plain 
that they were oftred ? Neither the Lieutenant, Surgeon, nor Clerk 
charge him with any Bribes ; and ihall it be thought, that a bare 
Aiierdon from one that ^ippears now to be his £nemy, is a fufficient 
Proof ? He hopes not. 

Objection 4.] He alfo^ in the Hearing of bis Officers at Churchill, 
told the Governor and Officers of the Company there, that be tvould be a 
better Friend to the Company than they expeffedi fir be nmuld be able 
to make the Voyage without any Man on board being the ijoifer^ nmbetber 
there nvas a Paffage or not. 

AnJ<wer^ The Captain does remember, that being once with the 
Governor and fome Officers of the Company, they jeeringly iaid, 
he and his People were to be regarded as a kind of enemies, and 
that he anfwered, perhaps they might find him a better Friend than 
they imagined, or to that Purpofe ; meaning thereby, not only the 
Power his Inftrudlions gave him to protedt their Trade, and which 
they underitood well enough ; but fomething elle alfo, wh^h they 
could not fo readily comprehend. The Truth is, the Agents of a 
certain Gentleman had, without the Captain^s Knowledge or Con- 
fent, ihipp*d on the board the Di/covery^ as many Goods to be dif- 
pofed of among the Indians, as would have' gained them many 
Hundreds of Pounds. This he difcovered at the Oriviy/, and was 
refolved, as he was in Duty bound » not to fuller any body on board 
to trade with the leaft Part of them. The Words he is charged 
with in the latter Part of this Objeflion were fpoken to his own 
People on board, as a Reproach to their Ignorance and Stupidity^ 
and their Averfion to being inftru6ted ; and he folemnly declares, 
not in the Hearing of any one that belong'd to the Company, to 
the utmoft of his Remembrance. Befides the Lieutenant and the 
two Matters, there was not a Man in either Ship, skill d enough 
. in Seaaffiiirs to have fo much as guefsM in what Part of the World 
he was, without being told. Here now, are two Expreflions of his 
uttered at difierent Times, in different Places, to different Perfons, 
and to quite difierent Purpofes, moil *ngenuoufly coupled together 
by the fingle Particle y^r, and fo wrought up into one terrible Qiarge 

Objcdion 5.3 He gave an Order f under fever ePenalties^ that none 
of his Crew JbouU bavf the leeffl Inter courfe or Trade voith the 

G % Anf 

i St 1 

Anf] He hai ilnady ftidV th^t k^ iM boiM in ]9arf 6) 4» 
tills, whether th^ Company rewat<led him or tht ' But does iio| 
(hi<^ Obje^ion (hew, chac thf Projeiftor of the Vbytfg^ had the Ad- 
vantage of a priy te Trade at Heart, more than tbe)>ablick iTtili- 
ty of a Difcovery ? Whence otherwife fiioold ariCe his Btadeavoars tp 
ftigmatize the Company, and di^lve (he|r Charter ^ Whence hia 
unwearied AppUca ion to pirejudioe the Captain's unb'emifhed Ch«« 
rader with the Lords of the Admiralty or t^e Pablick f And whenos 
his Projed of a new Settlement, and a further ProiVcution cif tht 
Difcovery, but to intrnft it with iuch as Ihould not batilk his Expec- 
tation in other Matttrs. 

Inftances of the ContradiSions and Incotififtencies which occur 
in, the Anjwtrs to the. ^eries propounded to the Lieuten- 
ant^ Majier^ Surgeon and Cterkj upon comparii^ them 
with one another ^ and with the Logg-bookSy journals. 
Councils^ Reports and Affidavits. 


LieuUnanC$ Anfwer to ^ery \ . 

TH E Water, I think, was fait ; but as I wOuId not 4epend 
on my own Judgment, I filled three Bottles with Water tt 
thrjse different Places, and brought them on board at my Retam | 
fii^d was told {here was no Diftipdion, for they were all equally a« 
like fait. 

Mafter^s Anfmtr to ^uery I . 
Above Diir SoHiuliht Water was much frelher^ md the higher up 
the freiher ftill. 

T. TownV AffiJami. 
The laid C^p^s and the faid four Men did all decljre, that they 
liad all taited of the Water in the Mid channel of thie River, foiur 
Leagues above Dttr Setmd, and found it to be but barely brackiil^^ 
and that the (aid four ^en did freely, drink of it for want of beer. 

tflrick Von Sdbriek'i u^^v//. 
Being up the River W^er three or four Leagues above Deir 
$ouHd» in th^ Boat with Capt. Middkton, — -He, this Deponent, an^ 
the red of the Hands in the Boat, did drink die WaC^r in the Uid- 
channel, and ibiind it to be jnft brackilhy fo that it ia\g\iX vtty wdl 
lie drank. 

Grance Grant*/ AffUkvit. 
T^e, this Deponent, heard the faid. Capiain Middl^tonzii6 zUl the 
faid four Men aflert, that (hey had tailed of the Water in the Mi(l« 
channel of Wager River, three or four Leagues above Deir Sdund^ 
and found it to be freih, or butjuft brackifli, and that the faid Men,, 
for want of Beer in the Boat, chofe to drink it ra(her than fuck the 
Ice, as they ufed to do elfewhcre. 


J fleered W.N.W by the Compafs, along the weft Shoie. 

'MMftir's AnfvSittoSimj i. 
tlie Courfe we fleered in the fbat after w^ came itp ^iMi tfte Uuf 
land was W^N.W. but the Ccmrfc of both Shores, tjr Comptfft* 
lirom four Leagues below where > Ae Ships lay^ to the hk^dl wt wetit 
up, is North 15^ Weft. • 

Lieutenant and Mkfttr^s Ref9rts^ 27/^ July.. 
When we were abreaft with the high Mdff Land we todbiA W^.W. 
keeping the Mid-^bannel. 


Cietfts Anfvotr to ^ety 3. 

i very well know they were limited to go only to Defr Smttui^ 0i 
fher^oots, and ordered to come back with the ptmofl Difpavdi. 

Ufutenants Anfiner to ^eyy $. - 

The .Captain's Orders, in Writing, to me were, that I fliould 
go to beer Sound, br thereabouts ; and ta come back with the 
lotmdft t)li)satch : Bot I defired he would give me my liber^ 
to a£l as I thought rstM. conducive tb the Difcoy«ry ; and he iFt^« 
t>ally confentcd that I xx^ight run up the River or ^mnt ss 
far as I could conVetiitntly, trithbnt xttarding the Shi^s frotti 

Mafters 'Anfwtr to ^ery j. 

The Order, through the iittrry and Miftake of the Clerk, as 
the Captain told him at oar potting 0^ the Boat, was to make 
Ob&rvations in and near Deer Soitnd : Bot he gave the Lieotenant^ 
as I heard afterwards, verbal Orders to {>roceed as far as he thoa{;ht 


Captain^ s Order, Joly 27. 

And to report to me at yooy fteram, which is to be at 

fpeedy as the Natore of the Service you are ordered upon will 

'Cierk^s AnfijHr to^ery 5. 
He threatened to cane the Lieutenant, and broomftick the Mifter^ 
and whip all the reft. 

Surgeon^! Anfwer to ^uery 5. 
He faid he would cane the Lieutenant, broomftick the Mafter, and 
whip all the reft that fpoke any thing s^oUt the Faftage. 

Lleutei^nf$ Anfhser to ^ery 5 . 
I kiibltr noddng of ihe Threatening Capt. hUddktun si find to hart 

madenfeof. , 

"Lieutenant^ s Anjwer to ^ery 20. ' 

I cannot fay th'e Ckpftain difcooragtd or difcooptenanced me in 
making iany I^fcoveilr. 

Mafter^s AnfitJDerxo^fy ^. 
I never heard of the leaft Threatening dtiring onr lieing at Sea tnjr 
fart of the Voyage aboot the Difcoyery ; bt^t the Captain aU 




% m 

ways treated every body too well* if I may be allowed the Escpref- 

fion. , . 

JffitUpvit ef T. Towns. . 

Capt. MddlitM^ Behaviour, as hr as this Deponent ever faw or 
heard, was very kind and mild, and he never threatened Paniihnient 
to apy one for ofi&ring his Mind with Freedom about the Condaft 
Qfed in the intended Difcovery. 

Affidievit of Ulrick Von Sobriek. 

Capt. Mddlttof^^ Treatment was very kind both to Officers and 

•^j^^n/Z/tf/'G ranee Grant. 

He never heard that Capt. MiddUtou threatened to punifh any one 
for Tpeaking his Mind about the Difcovery i but, on the contrary, 
he was always courteous in his Behaviour to his Officers; and kind to 
ally fometimes when they did not deferve it. 

JJidavito/T, Cooper. 

H^ never heard, or was informed, of any high or harfli Words 
that paiTed between Capt. Middliton and any of his Officers ; or that 
. the iaid Captain did any wife threaten to punifh any Man for fpeak- 
ing his Mind freely about the Difcovery, or that he threatened to 
break open any ones Ch^ft to come at Journals ; but, on the contra- 
ry» his Carriage was always mild to every body. 


It is obfervable that the Lieutenant never heard any of the Cap« 
tain's Threatening, but was told it by the Surgeon and Clerk, who 
both own, that it was fpoken to them in private. The Mafter can- 
not tell how to belieye it, nor the Men neither, for they never heard 
any Thing of it, nor felt any of its EfE 6ls. ' 

Lieutinant^s Anfiwer to ^jtery 6. 
We were carried to the South- weftward, nigh the Recks on the 
fouth Shore of Cape Dobbsy by the Tide of Ebb, and drove from 
Wager River {\x or fcven Leagues. 

Majfer^s An/wer to ^ry 6. 
We were carried S.E.b.S. as the Courfe of the Land lies by Com- 
pafs, from the River's Mouth towards Cape Dobis, until we met the 
Channel ebb froni the W.b.S. by C«mpafs. 

The Clerk, in Part ol his Anfwer to this Query, iays, at this 
Time the Mailer prevaricates, for fear, as he fays, he (hould be any 
>Man's Ruin, ^ery. Does the Clerk believe that any Man's Ruin 
can depend on the Truth of either of their Anfwcrs ? 

Lieutenawf^ Anfwer to ^utry 7. 
We ply*d with Sails and Oars to the Eaftward, to get out of a Tide 
, ftf Flood, which I apprehend and believe came from the South- weft, 
% fear of being horfed isto Wager Riyer again; 


Surgion's Jn/wtr io ^u4ry 7, 
We plyed to the North-eallward with Sails, Ship*8 Oan, and tw« 
Boats a Head, to be oat of the Ude of Flood from the Sputhwaidt 
leaft it fhottld drive as up the River fTa^tr again. 

Clirk^s Anfwer to ^itftj 7. 
We hailed away to the eaftward with all the Sail wt coald croad» 
rowing with the Ship's Oars^ and towing^ v/ith the Boats, to avoid 
our being forced into the River Wagit again, by a Tide of Flood 
that came from the fouth weft ward. 

Maflirh A^fwer to Siuery 7. 
When we failed out of the [River Wager ^ we ply*d to the eaftward 
with Sails and Oars, to get out of the Indraft of the River's Flood 
from the eaftward, but not from the fouthward, until you get within 
the Indraft of the River, and then indeed the Flood hath the Cour(e 
as in all Inlets. 

AffUUpvit of T. Towns. 
He is certain, of his own Knowledge, that all the way from the 
Frozen Strait to the River Wager, the Tide of Flood came from the 

Affidavit of Ulrich Von Sobriek'. 
The Flood Tide which flows up the Rivtr Wager, in at itsMouth, 
comes all from the eaft, or the eaft by north, the Courfe of the new 
Strait by Compafs. 

The Clerk will have it, that they failed away to the eaftward* 
with all the Sail they could croud : If he will look into the Joarnalit 
he may find that from eight to twelve it was flat Calm. 

Lieutenant'*s Journal^ Auguft 4. 
I feveral times try'd the Tide, and found the Flood came from the 

Lieutenant'' s Anfiwer to ^uery 9» 

That the Neap Tides are higher with a north-wefterly Wind at 
Churchill, than the Sping Tides with an cafterly Wind, is known by 
every Perfon who has any Knowledge of the Tides in Churchill 

J. Mzcht^lACs Affidavit. 

He, this Deponent, was employed five Years on board one of the 
Company's Sloops at Churchill, and fays that he took notice always 
near Churchill a N. E. Wind, when it blew any thing of a Gale, 
did make the higheft Tides, and that the (eaft Tides were when it 
blew a fouthwcft Wind. 

Lieutenant"* 9 Anfaver to^ery 10. 

The Tide at the Point near Brook Cobham in Latitude 63 « 20', 

nigh the Land, was as rapid as that at Wager River. The Cottrfe 

of the Tide, which was ytry impetuous.^ being never tried bat once 

at that Place. 


C 56 j 

Surgtoifs Anfwir to ^mf it* 
Th$ Rapiflity. of the Tide here filled ieveral abpjud ^ith Jdy and 
l^opes of ]|ndii>{^a i^ailage. 4vithout going mikh CucUier Qor^ward^ 

C/ftri*i A9fijjir to ^ffiBiy 10. 

I QcvfT &w ixiQrt rapK) Tidf s j^t any Place dw iVPa> Brook CoS- 
tantf in 63^ ao'. 

Liaunumft JmnaU July ^. 

The Tide was tried feveral times, and found to j;uA two Miles an 
Hour from the N. £. b. £. l^y '(?0|npa6 tbe Day before the FoU 
Mooa I aiid I take it to be.the Flood from the e^kward. 

Mafitr^s Anfrjiiir to ^uery 10. 

The Tide near the Head Land« in Tatitjade 63^ zo\ <as we we^t 
northward {rqifkChurcbi/l River, was. tried fev^ral tiffies^aod run twp 
Miles an Hour from the eaftward : But Land-men on board, and 
Sailors alfo, if not well acqiv^nted with Navigation, may, in fuch 
CafcA wh^/e th-C'Ship is und^r S^l, the 3oat at ADchpr> or sM Cnr- 
xept Lqgnding to> be gifily led 'mo &Ue Coackifions. 

Mafttrs Anfwer to ^uery 1 4. 
The Tide we fottn4 i^ 63^ zoi' in $hQre, wi^ not half fo ftrong 
aa what we found ia ttie ni^w Sti^u^, bafv^eon tihe ftiver Wagor and 
Caft Hope irtibifi Narrows, which I tried feve^al ^txmy^^^ wl^eyi 
almoft calm, and it broke our deep Sea-Line in bringing up our fmi^l 
Boat, and loft our Grapling. 


CUrlCs Jnfsoir to ^ery I j . 
I am very fure from a Channel we iaw, whicji di^Qined from the 
low^ Beach, and another diat I faw to the northward, as well at 
from the Gunner's an.d Carpenter's Account, that the Land we then 
fiood upon, was an Ifland waflied on all Sides by the Sea the Ships 
were in.. 

Mafttr^s jinfiuer to ^ry 1 1 . 
The Captain QrifUy ei^aired.of i^e Carpenter, and Gunner con« 
cerning the Froatin Strait, whether the Place they were landed upoa» 
was an Ifland or no? They anfwercd. It was^not; for th^y coi^d 
fee further than he. 

CUrk^s Jnftoir to ^ry 1 1. 

Whan we cavxe tq the Boat, it. was neaic low^Water, ^ad the Cap* 

taia askU which way the Tide of Flood r^n ? a^ was told it made 

: its CoO^rfe to. tiie northward. Ab^ut 7 d*Clock chat Eyaning, he t09k 

the Height of the Tide, it being at that time low VVat^r» and Uv^e 

Oays attpr (be FulLof the Mopn. 

Mafttr^s Jnfvier to ^ry 1 1 . 
The Captain took the Height of the 1 ide when he returned to the 
Boat. By .the Account tlie Ajen gave him when he got back, the 

,Tida,)ia4 {iow^4 fQur feet. ^ and he aftei;wards found by the.Mafks on 


[57 3 

Skore, thitit lud flowed fifteen or fizteen Feet ia ill i aad that a 
W. or W. b. S. Moon made High-water. 

Tranfa3ion$ mintimid in the Council of A^igoft Sy/gntd hy the Uew 
tenant and Mafiert and confirmed by the Gunner and Carpenter. 

On the feventh (of Auguft) at ten in the Morning, after we were con- 
firmed that the Flood came in on th* north Side from the £. b. S. 
Capt. MdMeton went afhore in the Boat» and found it flowed fifteen 
Feet three Days after the full Moon. The Carpenter and Gunner, 
who were two of the Boat's Crew, many of our People being very ill, 
went twelve or fifteen Miles on the fouth Side of thefe Straits, and on 
the higheft Hills they could find, iaw the Paflage that this Flood 
came in at. 


By the Clerk's Account there could have been no Flood at all da- 
ring the whole time that the Captain was abfent from the Boat. How 
then could he afk which way the Tide of Fiood ran ? 

Lieutenant'* s Anfwer to ^ery 12. 
I could never properly diiUngui(h the Head Lands in our Return 
from Cape Frigid 10 Brook Cobbam^ and did not come nearer to tho 
well Shore than ^vt or fix Leagues. We fearch'd neither Inlets nor 
Bays, nor came we near enough to any Land to the wefiward to 
diftinguilh it. 

Surgeon's Anfwer to ^ery 12. 
I do not remember we were nearer the weft Shore than 5 or 6 
Leagues; fo could not difcover whether it was Iflands or broken 
Lands, Inlets or Bays, or a main Continent, and feldom difcerned 
the Land, except fome high BlufF Point amongft the Clouds. 

Clerlfs Anjnuer to ^uery 1 2. 
It appears from the different Journals snd Log^Books, that we were 
not nearer to that Land than iivt or fix Leagues. 

The Log*Books make it appear, that they never were more than 
once or twice^ when they lay to in the Night, above three or four 
Leagues ofiF it. 

Mafier^s Anfimer to ^uefiion 12. 
We made fore to (earch all the weft Shore fo near as to fee the 
Bottoms of the Bays* and plainly make it main Land. We went 
within three or four I^eagues of moft Places, and where it was bold, 
we came within two Leagues, as off^the Head Land, where we found 
the Tide to run two Miles an Hour in Latitude 63 S 20', and from 
latitude 64'' to Brook Cobbam, we were fure of the main Land all 
the way. 

Lieutenanfs Journal Auguft lO* 
I wore Ship, the north Shore from N. E. to N. N. W, 

the ntareft Difiance four or fcit Leagdes * the north Shore 

H bearing 

hektiam frdm N.b. B. ttf S.k N. keft id Mf dMr AJM Ik i90 cM4 
to fee if there were any Opct&a^at f^lb^ id Hk Liad — — tbn^ 
tinued failing in fight of the maui Land of the north Shore, qaite 
from Cape Hopi, Hailed off t6 dee{M^ oar WsNif -^-^^^-^l find hf 
coafting along fhore of the Wikb^ hotn tfett FrisMnir &tMtt to tkit 
Place (the HeadLand inLatitade 6}P 20') that it is the main LanH.tho* 
there are ieveraHmall I0iiicb dad diep Baiys. I'hi^ HeUd Land, aii4 
the other in 64^ Lititdde, |flakli ad^^p Bay. In our Paflage out, 
we did not fee the Bottd^ of if« t^t #e hiv6 done fhnic6, aik) by \;stf' 
ing dofe in fhoMi m have feen ft^ra) black WhflM. 

Jffiduvh if T. T<>wn8. 
The Cq^tain hitd the Difcovery at heart abbv^ all Thi^£(s ; fbi^ bdf 
feemM overjoyed at tytry thing that feemed to promife it, and kepri 
coniiant Look out and ExaminMknlk of all Shores, keeping fome* 
limes eight attd forty Hq^% tf^n ll^tk, at a t!M wKrch Muft be nitj 
'^ * in tbofd Parts t6 ft MitB lii hji ba4 State off Httlthv 

Affaia^ (f Ulrich Von Sobriefc.. 
All the way between Brook C'obbam and Qfft BMs, they wero 
fore of (he maim Land, and were ii^ver above thr^ or BHi Lei^gj^iies 
off the Lttad, ttotft in one or two Places, where riieethig Wi£h fhoit 
Water, they f^ to in the Night time, that they mighi n^t pafs any 
Place unfetii, and ftood in fhdre in the Day. Off the He^d iMnd m 
Iia(iti|de 63? 20* , they were not two Leagues from Sho|ie. 

j^idavh tf Gra, Gmnt. 
Gftpt. Mi^uk was careful ikbbve all things to ftarci all SHdttSj) 
aid chofe to lay by in the Night, nither thair pafs by ah)^ Straits or 
Inlets that niight afford a Pafiage, 

M^er^s Anfwer h ^ry i ^ 
The Reafon the Boat was not fbii a-(hore to try the Tfdes, was, thai 
When ihe was mannM,we could not find Men to work the Ship,or reef a 
Stfil, or hand one. — — They gre# wor(e idH WorfS etvery day, 
alK) we had tiot above fix in Bo& W^ttch^^; bH^fidis three or fout 

• * a 

Surf Ms JJ^niiir h ^eh i j' 
There was ^^€t toy Bofar Mi on Sh6re, tmt iA Seslrcli made heaf 
the ^eftLai^d : 1 do not knfoW ai^' R£afbn wh^ we did not ttot 
out 6f fifty- three Men ^nfl 96^^ ^ bronght out ii Gbkrc&iti^ w6 
)Mtf bdt eight that ^eire mhmh 6f doi£g ihehr Dhif. 

Mm^o/T. To*<ii. 
Through tlife Skktien Md Ladn^hefif df i great many» and tfier 
ynfkillulnefs of feme, the Ships would not in ^l probabiiiity bave 
ever reached Ef^iaitd i^ilhi it it KsKl fle^fi GUi to uke away Capt, 


j^agfit If U1H(« Voa Sobfiek. 
Ootiif tyboye t^eniy Men wbieh theyhBd onbotni Ae Hi/hviH 
from GhrcJlnUhomt, ;lie» weic not four or five in a Watch, aUe to 
go alofc or iband or tecf a Sail ; ifeaagh diis Ship was better numii^d 
than die Bfnme9^ infomiiob, dm in ]^4^#r Rivisr^ thejr wete lbrc*i 
to feoii moft 0f ^liir HandU aWrdthe Pktnacu «Hberethqr ^ fe«r 
but fick Men. 


The Jtwo /inwSr^/ giure n$ aii Account of a Riyer or Straits, HAi 
Water and deep, a great Number of large black Fifh fpoating nil 
the Water^ and that they wc^five Dafs in crofllng it, and that theri 
'was a Co^per-mi^ on4ie Sid/e of t^ River or Straits ; and that from 
the bci AcGQWtt 1 00^ gatiber from them, it was ibmewhere thert- 

We ^d iio maaaer oif Accooat^m the Indians of any Paltage on 
the Caaft where we went^ naither did I heat fo much as one ivord 
ttendoned Jibont itraither whilft thny wese with na orfince iill now^ 
nor cottcexlungihlackFdfti near the Co|]|>er-Mittt. 

Majhr's Jnfwir t9 ^ny 1 8. .^ 
The Ca|ita^ told na, xfaat^ had proiniMI both ^ Governor 
and the Fnenda of the nOiahein Indians to pot ahem fiifb on Shore^ 
fo that they might get to their own home, or to ChurchiU. 

GUrjt s Anfufkr to ^gury \%. 
The Reaibna Capt. hUddhhn gave £or |xatting them afhote werei, 
«l lie 6idi leaft ^fe Indians^ when they ^H(ie to in^iaud^ flioold^ 
j^iMriChatteiing of die Co^qper-Mine, and Straits theneaboots, pilt 
the'Qotyeri^nent tff Ihe Expence of fitting out Ships i^;aini to makai 
trial of a Paflage that way once more. 

Burgetf^s 4^fi^^r t9^ttiff iS. 
l%t Oqptlin o^red them into an old leaky Bo^it, mtb tHKO Oara* 
liif aft and Sails, Jvvhich neither of thiem knew well how xo manage^ 
jn a ftrange Hace Ihe^ «H4 not know^ atpd in the nM& of thdf 
JDonal fineniiea. Bat all dds i^ould not pievail on the .Captain 1 for 
<they were adaally fo/c*4 over thetShip'sBide into the fioat. 

The Boat was very wcH, and tliey might eafily manage her, na they 
had been ihown,WharDiftang( they had toBhoiA^r along ihere as they 
pleaded : they kne^^ their way^ home well enough, as ithey iold us# 
jUAd were fufici^ndy foutified againft all ihe Men of thr Country, 
having Pife-<arms, weH ftock'd with Ainmuniton, and mpre of every 
thing than they^onld wcW^rarry* They were but 250 Miles^from 
their own Country, or the Ccnnj^any's Fadtor^^, which is nothing 
for an Jfiijia$t I04trairel. 

H a ' 4pJavH 

r 6o 3 

Affidavit of T. TowM. 

The two northern Indians were fo far from being forced into a 
leaky Boat againft their Will, that they went voluntarily into a good 
tight Boat, which this Deponent iaw well caulk'd two Days before, 
and' feem'd highly pleasM at their Departure, as well they might ; 
for they had more Arms, Ammunition and Goods given them, than 
they could have traded in feven Years, 

Affidavit pf G. Grant. 

They departed in a good tight Boat, highly pleafed with the large 
Stock of Preients, Ammunition and Arms, they had received from 
the Captain. 

Affidavit of T. Cooper. 

When they faw what Prefents and Arms the Captain had ordered 
to be delivered to them, they both feemed highly pleafed, and wil- 
ling to depart ; and both went voluntarily into the Boat, which was 
a good tight one, without the leaft Forcing or CompuUion. 

Lieutinanfs Anfwir to ^tury 20. 

I believe that fome of the Officers on board were difcouraged and 
difcountenanced from being inquifitive about it, or making Obferva* 
tions, which might promote the intended Difcovery. 

Clerk^s Anfiwtr to $uery 20. 

■ ■ ■■ by difcountenancing and difcouraging tvtrf one ' on bOard 
—and making what he thought mofl conducive to his Defign on the 

Lieutenant'' s Anjkver to ^ery 20. 

I can't fay that the Captain difcouraged or difcountenanced me in 
making any Difcovery— -nor did I ever hear the Captain threaten to 
take their Books and Papers from them, or give Orders that nothing 
ihou]d be entered in the Log-book, which ihould give any hopes of a 

Majier^s Anfwer to ^ery 5. 

I have heard (the Captain) fay, that he would put up with all that 
could be endured, rather than the Difcovery ihould be baulked. He 
never hindered any body from keeping what Account they would, 
and would always readily inftruA any Officer that would afic him in 
obfecving the Latitude, Variation, or any other curious Matter ; 
and fhew'd feveral how to keep Journals, that had never been at Sea 

Mafter^i Anfner to ^ery 20. 

The Captain feein*d on all Occafions heartily to encourage the 
Difcovery, and was ever free in communicating, and inftruding 
every Officer and Man on board, either in Navigation or the Sea- 
man's Part, as none is better qualified to do it : And the Lieutenant 
and myielf have experienced the Benefit thereof, and muil own it ; 
and to reprelent him in any other Light, I am thoroughly fatisfiedj^ 
IS doing him barbarous Injudice. 


[ 61] 

^AJjiiawt of T. Towns. 

Captain MVi//f/f»*8 Behaviour^ as far as this Deponent ever faw or 

heardy was very kind and mild. 'He never did threaten to panifli WKf 

Man for offering his Mind with freedomnbont the Condndl nfed in 

the intended Difcovery ; and he believes he had the Difcovery at 

heart above all things. 

j^da^it 9f Ulrich Von Sobriek. 

Captain Mddieton\ Tfearnient was very kind both to Officers and 
Men ; and nobody coald take more Pains and Care in making all 
kinds of Obervations, which might help towards a Difcoveiy; ti 
alfo in intruding others who were ignorant, to do the like; 

Affidannt 0/ Gra nee Grant. 

He never heard, that the Captain threatened to punifh any one for 
fpeaking his Mind about the Difcovery ; baton the contrary, he was 
always courteous in his Behaviour to his Officers, and kind to alJ» 
fometimes when they did not deferve it. 

• - *4ffidanfit of T. Cooper. 

He never heard,, or was inform'd of any high or harih Words that 
pafled between Capt. Middkton and any of his Officers ; or that he 
did in any wife threaten to punifh any Man for fpeaking his Mind 
about the Difcovery s or that he threatned to break open any one*t 
Chefl to come at Papers or Journals; but that on the contrary* he 
was at all times mild to tstxy body ; and by his encouraging every 
one under Difficulties and Hardfhips, this Deponent did and itill does 
fincerely believe, that hecameflly deiired to make and compleat the 



By tie Commijfioners for executing the Office of l^rd High 
Admiral of Grczt Britain a?td Ireland, &?r. 

WHEREAS we have, in Obedience to his Maje%*8 Commands, 
ordered the Furnace Sloop, whereof you are Commander,to be 
fitted out in a proper Manner to proceed on a Voyage towirdsBud/bn'^ 
Strait, in order to attempt the Difcovery of a Paflage that Way in the 
Wcllern American Ocean, and have appointed the Difcovery Pipk, Wil- 
Ham Moor Mailer, (who is hereby required and direded to follow your 
Orders] to attend you on that Service, you are hereby required anddi- 


tt&ei, to foon as the l|^$!Aop ^d fi^ffgnhdy for the Sea, to&Il 
4owntp fi^clfyrf, apd W*lfin A«r lw« W" VJNt " dtfc lo iheit 
^QMWIF^ <o 9fiW^ P M*k* «nd 44»^▼/fr the ipc^pjed Packet |q 
4::«jpcii9 IMkmrmf Qponnwi^Pr of Ma M«^y*ii ^ t)ip i^#49)«4, 

f^q^itiWiffS .Ojr4jrr| 19 thf |bj4 ^H)^^]! |o pi;oM}4 mf>m&9Mf y^ilti 
you, as £ur as the lilands of Orhuy, for yonr hfMRT Security a|iyj[|i^ 
the Privateers of tl^e Ineffliy, #iif |o V cr^jfe^g :^reabout8. 

You $» accQ^rdiiitlK to mpcciBd i|i (Q^paoy iiijilji |he ftid Ship 
J7(^/h(^Ar M &r as the i^reHpd I/bod** «lid tluB9 (0 P9)ce $||ie bell i6f 
yofir War with the Sloop fmi PiMt under yo,^^ ^iumm^d xomiurdM 
Hud/on % Strait, and afccr F^l^ itl^ ^#fl^> tf> piW^ to €41^/ 
^<z<;a»'/ Neft i and th(sn Aoer ]S!9ctkrFC<^;fi7> fo as to 611 in with 
the Norih-weft I^indat^ir Jbniw J!^90^$ W^kim» f^ |v ^Um, near 
the latitude of 65 Begi^ses l^orth* 

You ate jthere to mskfi tkt kfilk Obfeiyitions ytMi can of tius 
Heighth, DirefUon and Coarft of the TideSf beiMfiog jof the laada^ 
iDepth and Soundings of th^ Sea, an^ ShqaM^ with d&e Variation of 
the Needle. 

When you coiye up with WhaUftiti Vsm^ mSf^ y^u ne |o tnr 
the <beft Parage in doubling that LaM> whether to Es^wiard or Weft- 
Ward, in caft it be an UUnd i wd on 5¥hi€^ S^ide (oeyer you meet 
the Tide at Flood, to diiv£l your Ccrarie fo aaio nuset the Tide^ 
whether North- waflerly or Soot^-tKefarly* 

II after, ia doufaUng that C^, you find eitiher ^ Stmt or as 
open ^9^ your to ktip on your Coviie, fiiU mating the Tide of 
Flood ; and if it be fo wide as to lofe Sight of Lanci, then keep to 
the Larboard or Jmerican Shore, fleering South. wefterly, fo as to 
take the Bearings of the Lands and Soundings ; aiid obferve whe- 
ther then 1^ ^y IwiUf, Pmf9^ ^^^^^ ^ ^kar 4he Ships, in 
cafh bad Weather, or contrary Winds, omige yoo to ^ke Harboiir i 
and there make the beft Plans you can of fuch Harbours, and the 
Chl^^ts of the Coaft. 

Y^ muft xnake |io ^tay Bfiv >(rhere, ,il||hilft !K^nd and Weatlief 
permica, (except in msldng ObCiirvatioas ibr your Saficgr in yoiur 
Return) until you get to the Southward of 60 Degrees North ; and 
then, if you continue to find an c^n Sea, make more careful Ob^ 
jfervations of the American Coaft or Iflands, and of the Headlands^ 
Bays, and Rivers, until you make the Latitude of 50 Degrees, or 
any more foucherly Latitude, in cafe you ^d it convenient to win-> 
ter on the wellern Side of Amiricai but if you ihquld find it' more 
convenient to return ii^to the ^^ay to winter^ or can inake your 
Paiiage ;home in Time, after making a Difcoyery of the iPaffage (o 
^he Weltem Jmerican peean, (wfai^ is inore eligible) in order tor 
prof<i<iute the Difcoyery to Advant^e next Seafon, then you neei 
proceed po farther foucherly than ^6 or ^ Degrees Latitude, an^ 
make all proper Obfervations of the Tides, Bays, Head-lands, 
S^hoals, and Rocks ot both fidee. if t^ Parage be narrow, or ok 


[ 6n 

ration, or inf otter, cnnoiii Obftrvmioiitf yon tei duikd. 

If you find any Inhabitants upon the Coaft, or any p6p40tvN*- 
ti^^af to the Soothtv^f yo^t are to eadeavonr by dl p-dwnr kMatf s, 
to dltSfflite a FAeidtui^ «ftd Alfianoe.widr tfien, pfdeMag ttaa 
v^kb fit6h TrItM as tbr^ Mne^ and fhewiflf thtm nXi pd&fte Cl^ 
vility and Refeed ; but to take Caution, if they be numtfMtl^ «cfe 
to let yochrfelf oe §0iifTm6, but to be conAantly on your Guard againft 
any Accidtiits. 

If yoii fiiAd it ]>n>pbr to winter oil A'e other Side of the Fafia|^, 
get to a warm Climate not more northerly than 42 D. ilk felme 
fafe Harbour, that itajf be 6t Uie ill a Aiture Settlement ; and ra- 
ther iff ah lOstdi, if there be a good Harbour, which would be iafer 
than on the Continent for an infant Settlement. 

If your Place of wintering is within a proper Difbnce to be fup* 
plied by the Nati^ pA the Conihient, take t>i'Oper Seedtf, of Fruit- 
Trees, Plants, Graiik kn& Pfflfe, sfnd fbw them in the Spring, or 
in cafe you find any civilised Nation, who want fuch Kinds, you 
xnty pt&eht hiOk ^ fhem; ii^ ittiOte ih^tti fenfible of their Ufe 
and Mdfinfc'f 6f euHitf^: 

In Pla^s yi^ktHi ydh Am HlM mttbitint»< ihzkt I^indiatfes With 
their Cbnfilfit, 1^ istice ?mmdS ^ ^it^nieht Sttoations ih the 
Country, ih the f^iiak 6f hii Mt^Hy of OHdtBrttaiM, 

But where there ir6 hb Ihhablisiiits, yoit mufttake Poflbffidh l^ 
ietting up projifer Infcriptions, as iirft IMfcoverers and Podbflbrs. 

If in ycui Paffige you meet with any Ships trading to the wellera 
Countries^ eskftwird of Japan, 01 ithy Jdiaiitxt Ship$, and you ap- 
prehend any 0ah^f ^rom them, eith^^ fibm their Force or Nam* 
ber, you are to pfotxitii ho farthei* hi the Difcovery» but immediately 
to tihtm, that Ships of fufficient Force may be fent out next Sea- 
fon, to begin a Trade, or make a Settlement, without any Appre* 

teniion of Difturbance from any powerful Nation on that Side, 
:ft any Accidel^t fhould prevent ypiir kecdrif, ind difconrage any 
farther Attenapts to be mad^ for the fdtiiH;. 

If you ihould arrive at California without any Apprehenfion of 
Danger, and chufe to winter in 42 D. (where Caxton is fi^id to have 
fpund a civiliwd Nation and good Harbour) or more foutherly^ 
then endeavour to meet Captain AnfiH tii iHk Mdfiith of DecemSer, 
Watt thb Arrival 6f the Mtnitd Ship at CipeSt. Lucai, the fouthers 
Ckpe of CatijMd^ ahd kave i Cdpy 6f jfour Journal With hiiDf 
Uft any Accident ffiodld happen io you ti|:^o^h your keturn, and fo 
the Difcovery be loft, and It might prevent Ship$ bei)ig feUt; out to 
your Relief in caie «ff Sfiijmittk. 

fiut for as much, as in an Undertaking of this Nature, feveral 
Emergenci^i hiay arife,.ntft to be Ibrefeen, and therefore not io 
particularly ;o fc^ provlaaii fer by liillrufiions beforehand, you 


[•64 ]• 

art in fiich cafe to proceed as, upon Advice with your Officers, yo« 
ihall judge may be moft advantageous to' tlie Service on wbicii you 
are employed. 

When you return liome, you are to proceed into the River of - 
names t and feiid our Secretary an Account of your Arrival and Pro* 
ceedings, for our Information. Given under our Hands the aoth of 
May, 1741, 

Cha. Wagir, 
To Captain Vf iddleton , Comma nder Tho. Franklanb* 

A^ his Majeftfi Ship the Furnace* GLBNoacHT. 


By Command of their Lordfhips, 

nomas Corbitt* 


My the Commiffioners fir executing the Office of Lord High Admiral of 

Great-Britain and Ireland, ^fc. 

YO U are hereby required and diredled, during nhe Courfe of 
your intended Voyage, not to give any Difturbance or Moleiia* 
tion tQ any .of the Ships or Sloops employed in the Service of the 
Jiudfons-Bajf Company, but to give them sill the Protcdlion and AT*, 
iiiiance that lies in your Power, whenever any Opportunities offer of 
your being ferviceable to them. Given under our Hand^ the 29th of 

A%, 174"- 

Cha. Waqer, 

fo C apt, lAx^d\etoHf Commander (f Verb Beau cl irk, 

his Majefty*s Sloop the Furnace . Glenorchy. 

By Command of their Lordlhips, 

nomas Corbett^ 


Hudfon's-Bay Qmpany to their. Governor Mr. James Duffield, and 
Hudfon's-Bay Houfe London Counjel at Mpofe Ri'ver Fort, May 
the $oth, 1741. . ■ 


>YOtwithilanding our former Orders to you, if Captain Mid- 
i^ dleton (who is fent abroad into the Government's Service to 
difcover a Paflage to the North'we(l] i)iould be obliged to refort to 
you, you are then to give him the beft AflifUnce in ypur Power. 
Vi^e remain> 

Thur loving Friends, 

Bibye Lake, Gov. J. Winter, 
Benj Pitts, D. G. Ab. Lake, 
WiUiam EldertOP* John-Anth. Merle. 

IV. jt Cwncil 

ACmndl tff QMXy SwaxtU NcS. 

AT a CbnacU held on board M% Majelly's Sloop Wmac$^ -^^fi 
the ift» 1741* » the Latitude of 60? z%' north, Loantiido 
S7<'44'weft, WindN.bjrW. 

Capt. ChriAophir MUdhm, Prefident, 
WUiiam Mo»r, Mafter of the D^ufimy, 
Jihn RoMkiHi Liemeeait, 
Rohenmym, Mailer. 
The Qoefiion was piic» and uken into CoafideiatKHi, Whether it 
would be proper to proceed upon a Difcoverjr of a Pafiage from 
ibufo^^S'Bof to the Soutb^ea direaiy, or to repair with hit MajeHy's 
Sloop /erJMtf and Difi9Vify Pink to CbureUii River ia Hudfin's-Mof^ 
as the Seaibn of the Year is coo far adraBoed to proceed to the /£r 
Uiiruy and there being a Neceffity of iccaring the VefleU, and pro* 
Tiding Neoeflaries for wintering as ibon as poifiUe : And it was una* 

Rijohfid^ That confiderinf Ae Rigoor of die Winter in theft 
Paru of the World, the want of every Thing ncoeflary lor boildinr 
Losings for the Men, and a convenient Placie for fecuring the Ve? 
fols from the Danger of the Ice } the Neceffity of digging Store- 
rooms for the Provifioas, no Sraiidyi Spirits, or Strong Beer being 
Proof againft the Severity o^ the Winter above Ground ; the Uncer«> ; 
tainty of iiscaring the Veflcls after the Froft come^on, which ufually 
happens in the Beginning of Septembtr ; and the Obftrudions we ' 
may poflihly meet with in our Pailage, by Fogs, Calms, Ice, and 
contrary Winds : 

That it would be the bed and fareft Method for the Service in ge- 
neral to pfoosed dire£t)y for Chmrcbili Rirer in HudfomsBqjf, there to 
fecare his Majefty's Veffsls, Fmfmte and Dlfiwery^ with their Provi* 
fions. Stores and Ammunition^ and to provide convenient Winter- 
Quarters, Firing, and necefiary Cloathing for their refpe^ve Com* 
panies, and to wait for the breakine sp of the Ice the next Year, 
and then to attempt the IMfcovery of a Palfiige from Hmdfon's-Bay to 
the South-Sea. 

Chiftopber Mddliton^ 
John RimMn^ 
WUHam More, 
JMert mifift, 

AT a Cboncil held at the New Fort, ChurchiB Rrrer, March 
theaift» 1741-2. 

Capt. Chriftofher MMktoH, 

3ohn Rankin^ Lieutenant, 
^iUUm More, Mafter and Commander C/t A» JK/temy^ 
Mvi Wilfint Mafier tf the Furtme. 

I It 


It is taken into Confidcration, . Whether it would be neceflary §)? 
the Service his Majefiy*s Sloop Furnaci is ordered upon to make 
the folloyving Alterations, which were mentioned by a Letter from 
Captain Mtddieton to Sir Jacob Jckworth, and for want of Time 
could not be effefted, <viz. the Quarter-deck to be made flnfh wit]! 
the preient Main-deck, by having a flight one laid over the former, 
and a Companion-way thereupon made to go down into the Steer* 
age ; the former Pai&ge thereto being not only inconvenient, but 
very dangerous for Perfons coning from below to go forwards, when 
the Capllon is in ufe, as Captain Middlnon' by fad Experience 
found, being jammed between^ the End of a Capfl9a Bar and the 

And it was refolved. That confidering the high and traverfe Seat 
in this Part of the World, and the Probability of /hipping large 
Quantities of Water, it is abfolutely necefTary to have the Quarter^ 
deck made flufh with the Main-deck, the Sloop to be fteeted with 
a Wheel, . dead Lights hung with Hinges to be fixed to the great 
Cabbin Windows, which will make more room for the Capfion than 
is at prefent, and which we fhall be obliged to ufe very frequently 
upon our entering or coming out of Harbours, warping among Ice, 
and upon account ot trying the Tides ; and it. is our Opinions thofc 
Alterations ought to be made before his Majeily*s Sloop Furnace 
proceeds to Sea. Given under our Handa this xift Day oi Marcb^ 

Chrifiopher Middktin^ 

William MooTf 
Robert WiUwt. 

AX a Council held on board his Majefly's Ship Furnace, in Sif 
Thomas Roe\ Welcome, the 1 2th Day of July, 1 742. 

Capt. Chriftopher Aliddleton, 

Lieutenant ^obn Kankin, 

fF////^w2 Moor, Matter an4 Commander of the Difc^very, 

Robert IVillon^ Matter of the Furnace, 
Tl^c manifeft Hazard of his Majetty's Ships Furnace and Dircoveyy^ 
from the vatt Quantities of Ice that furrounded them, the Sea being 
covered for ten Leagues to windward, and the Ships driving every 
Tide nearer the Land, and' at that time within two Miles of the 
Shore ; that there was a Neceflity of turning back, or feeking fome 
Ifarbour, as foon at might be^ to fecure the Ships, was taken feri- 
oufly into Confideration, and it was unanimoufly Refolved, That it 
would be the moft tlig^ible and fafcft Method, for the Prefervation of 
his Majetty's faid Ships, and the Lives of the Men, to make the bett 
of oar way to an Inlet or Strait, that appeared beyond Whalebone- 
Point, there to feek out fome convenient Place to fecure the Ships, 
till fuch time as the Welcome fhould be' cleared pf !»« .^ndl.the ufe 


tMi litmoft EndeaVoiirs for proceeding on our Difcovery. In wie« 
tiefs whereof we hive hereunto fet our Hands the * Day and Year 

Cbrifippber Middleton, 
John Rankifi, 
William Moor, 
Robert mifoH. 
Lieutehanfi Ripdrt, Sunday, July tbi zpb, 1742. 

rWAS ordered to take the Mafter with me In the eight-oarM Boat, 
to found in the Channel to the northward of the Iflandi in the 
River, and to fee for a Harbour for our Ships, near the Month of 
tiie River, for afafe Retreat, if need be, but I could find none on 
the north Side 1 but I faw feveral Openings or Coves on the fonth 
Side, but I could not get near them ; for the River was very full of 
Ice horn Side to Side. 

I made the beft of my way up to the Ships from near the River's 
Month I I got up to the Ifland off the Mouth of Savage Sound or 
River, the Tide came down upon me, and all the Ice, with fuch 
Force and Swifhiefs, that our Boat muft have been fmafhed into a 
thoufand Pieces, if we had not got her inftantly into a Cove, or large 
Field of Ice: Wc were inclofed with fo much Ice, many large 
Pieces, fome of them drew nine or ten Fathoms Water t we were 
forced upon the fouth Shore with great Swiftnefsi and many Pieces 
were forced upon the Rocks, and others againft them with great 
Force } we were forced off again near thz Middle of the River, and 
carried out of the River's Mouth with the Tide of Ebb above five 
Leagues, before we could fee the lead Opening among the Ice, to 
get the Boat out. About four or five in the Morning, the 26th, the 
I06 opened a little ; I got the Boat out of the Cove, and forced her 
through the Ice, it having little or no Motion ; the Flood Tide be- 
ing made, we got among loofe Ice, and failed towards the north 
Shore. About twelve at Noon, the 26th, we got in under the 
Iflands on the north Side, at the Mouth of the River, we lay the 
Tide off Ebb, and got on board of the Ship at half an hour paft nine 
at Night. 

y«^ 27th, 1742, John Rankin, 

IX. ^ 

Mf Order to tbe Lieutenant and Majler. 

Bf Capt. Chriftopher Middleton, Commander of his Maje/tfs Ship 


WHereas I ordered you and the Mader to found in the Channel, 
on the north Side of the Ifhdids in this River, and to look out 
for a Harbour for the Ships near the Mouth thereof, but finding by 

I 2 your 


your Repocu tb*t there h none to bt twrni oft the North Side» and 
the Ri^rer being T^iy fuUof Ice» there waa iu>«m»X)tcMBjp; the South 
SiJe ; it alfo having been hinted to me» that there was losie hopes 
of a Paflag^ or InlH into the Sea» from the Rifings of the Tifles at 
6r near Mtr Sotaul, black Whales having been feen theieaboots, and 
it being imf)offible to move the Ships with Safety, while fach Bodies 
of Ic^ are now in the River, and continue to drive with the Tides ; 
yoa and the Matter are hereby lequired and direded to take the ix* 
oar*d Boat» proceed up the River Wapr as £» as Dur 8mmd befcm- 
meatiooed, and to be as particular as nsay be of the Flux of die 
Tides, theiir DiseOioa and Hci^t at that Plaoe and near it^ and 

J^avticularly to noMB Mthediec the Hood in the River JDmt &aiMf coMet 
bom this River or feme other, and to make And Enquiry, ^whe* 
ther thiiL black Whales caa have any. other PaAg^ firoa the Sin 
into this River, than that where hia htfajefty's Shi^J^mmr^ and 
DifcQvery came in at, and to report to nfte, under your Hands, at 
your Return, which is to be as fptedy as (he Nature of the Service 
you are ordersd upon wilL pemitft what Ob^ervataaei yo«i ^atee 
thereof, and for (b doing this (hall be your fuficieat Wsmnt. Dtod 
on board his Mije^*s Ship Furmue^ the tj^ Dai^eC Je^ ^7^^ 

Tq Lieuiittani John Rankin, ««J Robert 
Wilfon, Mafter ^ Us MaJ€fif$ Sbii^ 

Qlmfttphm MiiUbm. 


^i. UiuUnanfs mtd Mt^$ Rtportf. 

Turfumt t^an Order frum C^ft, Chriftopher Middlfton, 

rf bis M^tjhfs Ship thi furnace, iiarifig Datg tb$ zjtk ^jvlf^ 

WE, whofe Names are hereunto fubfcrib^d, took the Emwuci^ 
iix-oar*d Boat, and went from Savagi Sounds where his Mn»- 
jefty's Ships Fumaa and Difcwery then lay ; and on the 28th, at 
one in the Morning, arriv*d at Dttr Sounds where we tried the Tide» 
and found the Flood to come into that Place from the River Wager^ 
and rofe at that time ten Feet. At fix o*CIock the (ame Morning 
we left Dur Sound, (where we put the two northern Indians alhore 
to kill fome D.eer for our fick Men), and iailad for a high bluff Land 
t>n the N. W. Side of the River ff'eger. Our Conrfe from the Iflands 
on the north Side of Dar Sfnml to the Ugh bluff Land, was N:. W. 
b. N. by Compafs; we founded frequently, and had no Ground 
widk a Line of £xty-eight Fathoms aH the way. over. When we 
were a-breaft of the hi^ bluff Land, we lleer^d W. N« W. keeping 
(he Mid channel^ and ftiU fimnd no Ground at 9^ Fathom, except 

' nigh 

»igk tene Iflmds dnthy ia te £Ur Wny ikodeMi6 tbM ottr th« 
Rifsr, mmI 30 Fadioiiit witlai a I^agtit ol oM of thtdl. Tliit 
4^urfo w« kept tUI w» cot About 15 JMgOH torn Da,' Sound, hta 
iMting the Tide or Fieih apiiift vt^ and the IVhid coming hit, w« 
Wire jtffftid to ftaj my loq^^ for ftir ofliiildeflftg the Ships fiMi 
tewg to Seal JUBWdfor, wv cme to t OtapAdl with the Boer, end 
«re»t open a lug^ nKMmnioiii 24Hd, wheit hm; hed a rtrf hw 
View of the Rivtr. Ftoei thentt wd ihw a great Run or FitU c^ 
Water betwcaai the fappo^d AKiin Land aid the i^Mfiiid I&ndr, 
veijr nanow^ feeanq^y net a hCik lee^^ and Aout » League fronk 
whew the Boat lay ; but tor the aorth wards we Ai§6orttx^ a hirge 
Ceikftipnof Wate?^ ia whjdi Wffe levM^l IftMd*, aad h^ momr- 
«anKM» La&d on both; Scdee of It, dtt wef^ Side hihring Maay bluff 
Poiocs^ and broken Lmd. Im our Retum t6Wards the Ships, aud 
set fiarffOflK D0tr Smmd, we fK¥^ ftntal hrge black Whale^ of the 
WhaleboM kiady Ibaie of whieh caaie very near th^ Boat So that 
vponthewhokVwediidiktBMreaaiy'beAnie other Paflage into the 
Sea fiom: thr V&vtr Wagt^^ brMi^ that which his Ma}efty*s Sftij^s 
Wmrtrnti and A^ievi^ ouinr la* ar, and iaflfagiue thcte'^ is a great Proba- 
bflity of ait C^aibg or lnl«i iaio i!he ^, fettx^wh^e on the eaft 
^d^ tkoreoi; the^ we ^eMtaot fr« the PItfce. Giveii uHder our Hand^ 
this fiift Day ef .^Aifajlr 1 74^* 

R^ftt mifitt. 



T aiCeonail; lield ^ 8tH Bay of Aigufii 1742, ob Bbdrd !fis 
Adaj^ VMp: Fiffma. 

Otpt. OiHfibplfif Mkldbtm. Pribiideur, 
ITnK Mwv h^llM^ and ComaMtato of the Dijcov/ry, 
y^ RMkin, Lieuoraane, 
ROff^t Wi^ Mafter. 


?%# jM^ifig Tr^/kOhfu •*»« f ^/^ anvi/ ummltrntfy agreed t^, tiz. 

.tf^M^ the id'y 1742. Unmoor d and failed out of ^Piz^^r River, 
that luver aiuf the Straits befaig pretty cl^r of Ice, in pnrfurt of our 
Difcovery. The 4^1 having contrary Winds and Calnas^ made but 
little Northing. On the 5th by Noon, got into the Latitude of 
669 14', but met with much Ice and ftrong Tides. The fame Day. 
in the Rmiog, we difcovered on the nonh Side of our new Straits, 
a Cape or Head Land, bearing N. the Land on the fouth Side lyeth 
E. b, N. and by W. b. 8. and on the other ?ide N. b. W. which 
gave us all great Joy and Hopes of its being the extream north Part 
of Jmeii€a^ We could fee little or no Land to the northward of 

£ 70 ] 

It* and deep Waters, very high Land, and ftrong Tid^s, when ^ 
were 4 or 5 Leagues Ihort of it. T&is Oipt. MUdUim named Cafi 
Hope. We turn'd or work'd round it the fame Night, and got 5 oi* 
6 Leagues to the N. by W. before we could fee any otherwife than 
fair and wide Straits ; but the 6th Day about Noon, after haying got 
into the Latitude of 66? 40', found we were embay'd, and by twain 
the Afternoon, could not go above 3 Leagues farther, . having trkd 
the Tides all the Forenoon till a oXlock in the Afternoon, but found 
neither Ebb nor Flood, yet deep Watei*. From this it was con^ 
dttded, that we had overfhot the Straits on the north Shore, wheiv 
we found ftrong Tides that came from the £. b. S. but apparently 
no PafTage ; and as there was no proceeding above 3 or 4 Leagues 
ferther, it was agreed upon by all to return back and fearch nar-^ 
rowly for the Straits, by finding from whence, the Floods came« 
On the 7th, at 10 in the Forenoon, after we were confirmed tho 
Flood came in on the north Side from £. b. S. Capt. MidMetm went 
on Shore in the Boat, and found it flowed 15 Feet three Days after 
the Full, and a W.^ b. S. Moon made high Water. Capt. Mddfeton^ 
together with the Gunner and Carpenter fwho were two of the 
Boat's Crew, many of our People being very ill) went 1 2 or i $ 
Miles on the fouth Side of thefe Straits, and on the higheft Hills 
they could find, faw the Paflage that this Flood came in at, the Moun* 
tain they ftood upon being pretty near 9 Leagues from the Fntranoo 
of this Strait out of the Bay the Ships were in, and from whence 
they could fee about 1 2 or 1 5 Leagues farther ; but for the 1 8 of 
20 Leagues, it was &ft with Ice nor yet broke up, and running away 
S. £. and S. S. £. by Compafs, with very high Land on both Sides, 
about 4 Leagues broad in the narroweft, and about 6 in die wideft 
part, with about 20 fmall lilands in the Middle and Sides, and it 
being then the 7th of Augufty and no Appearance of its dearing this 
Year, and near the 67th Degree of Latitude, no anchoring the Ship, 
being very near deep Water dofe to the Shore, and much large Ice 
driving with the Efai) and Flood f- but little Room if thick Weather 
fhould happen, which we could not but exped ytry foon, having 
had much clear Weather ; for which Reafons it is agreed upon to 
make the beft of our way out of this cold, dangerous and narrow 
Strait, and to make farther Obfervations between the Latitude of 
64^ and 63^, on the north Side of the Welcome ^ having feen large 
Openings, broken Land and Iflands, with ftrong Tides, but had not 
Opportunity of trying from whence the Flood came in our Pailage 
hither. Given under our Hands this 8th Day ^ Auguft^ 1742. 

Cbrifiopher Middlelm^ 
John Rankin^ 
fVilliam Moor^ 
Robert mifiHf 
George Axe^ 
John Hodgfrn. 



4 Copf of an AbftraB of our Journal from Churchill on tb$ Di/covery 
to our Arri*val at the Orkneys on board bis Majefty^s Sbip Furnace, 
fent to the Admiral^, tbt Navy, and to Mr. D in Ireland. 


I Sailed from Churcbill the firft Dtf of Jufy, being the firft Spurt 
of Wind I could get for failing with a fair Wind, till the third i 
when we faw an Ifland, the two Extremities bearing N. b. £. and 
£. b. N. lying in the Latitude of 63? 00' north, and Longitude 
from Churcbill 3^ 40' eaft, which I take to be the fame which Fox 
named Brook Cobham. On the fifth Day, I faw a Head Land on 
the north Side of the Wekomo, bearing N. W. b. N. feven or eight 
Leagues diftance, in the Latitude of 63^ 20', and Longitude from 
Churchill \^ 00' eaft. Here I tried the Tides feveral times, and 
found dofe in with the Land the Tide to run two Miles an Hour 
from the N. b. E. which I take to be the Flood> and by the Slacks, 
from feveral Trials, I found that a Wefl or a W. b. N. Moon made 
high Water, having a full Mdbn that Day. On the eighth Day, 
faw the north Side of the Welcome^ with much Ice in Shore. I tried 
the Tide, and found it fet £. N. E. two Fathoms. On the ninth, 
continuing my Courfe, and failing through much Ice, I was obliged 
at length to grapple to a large piece. I'he Tender did the fame to 
keep off from the Shore, the Wind blowing us right upon it. I 
tried the Tide frequently, and could difcover neither Ebb nor Flood 
by my current Log. Here we were faft jamm'd up in Ice, being 
totally furrounded for many Miles, and the Wind fetting it right 
upon us, it was all Ice for ten Leagues to Windward, and wer^ in 
great Danger of being fofc*d afhore; but it happily falling calm, 
after we had lain in this Condition two or three Days, the Pieces of 
Ice feparated, or Qiade fmall Openings, we being then within two 
Miles of the Shore, and with no little Difficulty haulM the Ships 
from one piece to another, till we got amongft what we call Sailing 
Ice ; that is, where there ^re fuch Intervals of Water, as a Ship^ 
by feveral Traverfes, may get forwards towards the intended Courfe. 
In this manner we continued till we faw a fair Cape or Head Land 
to the northward of Whalebone Point, in the Latitude of 65^ 10' N. 
and Longitude from Cburchijl 8° 64 Ball. This I named, after 
my worthy Friend, Cape Dobbs. I had very good Soundings ba* 
tween the two Shores of the Welcome, having 46, 489 and 49 Fa- 
thoms Water. At the fame tine . that I faw Cape Dobbs, I faw a 
. fair Opening bearing N. W. which, accprding 10 my Inflrudions. 
I flood in for among the failing Ice. It wa9 juft Flood when we 
entered it ; the Tide running very flrong, which, by Obfervations 
afterwards, I found to run five or fix Miles an Hour. I run over 
fome Rocks on the ^lorth fide vnxy luckily^ being juft. high 


£ 7* 3 

Water, and anchored aboat 34 Fathoms s but as (boa ai the Tide 
of Ebb was made, it ran fo ftrong, fuid fuch Quantities and Bodies 
of Ice came down upon us, that we were obli^ to fteer the Sldp 
all the Time, and keep all Hands upon ^Ir guftfd wiA Ice^poki^ 
to ihove off the Icei notwithftanding'Whkh it .Iwoqgbt tm Aodior 
home, and taking hold dpin, one of %• AxmMt the AsdMT was 
broke .off. 

Theifiejct Day I lent my Lieutenant in the Bcttt* to &ek Ml hm 
ieeurer Pl^ce for the Ships, it heiag impoiSUe tokcep.a-fleat wheUe 
we were. Some UJkim^ Savages came off to ust bnt ksd aodbiM 
p trade ; I uied them civilly, made th^m fome Prefimtt, and diiV 
ini^ed them. As foaii as I got the Ships ftcitred, I employed aB 
my OQcers and $(«ts, having myfelf no little Shate in the I^bdort 
in trying the Tides, and di(covering th« Ccwrie and Natnm of tUi 
Opening, and after repeated Trials for thiee Weeks incoefivdy, I 
(o^nd the Flpod conftantly to come from the eaftwaxd, and thai il 
was a large Hiver we were got into, but (b full of Ice, there was no 
ftirring the Shipt^ with any ptofaabUity of SaleCy, while the Ice was 
driving up and down with the ftrong Tides. Here I by, not • 
];ttle impatient to get out; wentfeveral times in my Boat tt>w«rda 
the Mouth of the iUvcr, and from a HiU that over-lodced Part of 
the Welcome^ iaw that Place full of loe ; ib that I found there was 
no Time loft by our being in Security $ howefcr, I fent my Ueiui 
tenani and Matter in the eight-oared Boat to look out for a Haihonr 
neat the Entrance of the River, but they found none, and it was a 
fmall Miracle they got on board again ; for they were fo Jammed VBf 
with the Ice, which driving, the ftrong Tides would inevitably have 
fiov« the Boat to Pieces, and all mnft have periihed» had it not 
been for an Opening in a large Piece of Ice, into which diey got^ 
Boat, aod wiih it drove out of the Rivet's Month ; , but when tltt 
Tides lacked/ the Ice opened as ufual, and they rowed over to the 
north Shore, and fo got in with the Floed» I ieveral times ^t the 
Indi&Tis on Shore, to fee if they knew any thing of the Laad 1 but 
they were quite ignorant of it. In this vexatious Condition I conti- 
nued fur three Weeks, r^olving to get out the firft Opportanity dm 
River was any thing clear of Ice, and maka what Difeovei ies I 
could by meeting the Flood Tide. This River, which, by fkequent 
Trials of ^e Lands, Soundings, Tides, &r. I was able s» take a 
Draught of, I named the River Wiigtr^ after the Right Hononrabbr 
Sir Charles fVager, Sec, 

On the 34 of Jugufi, the River for the firft Tivae wu a little 

clear of Ice> and accordingly in purfuit of our Difcovery, and on 

the 5th by Noon got into the Latitude of 66^ 14'. We had then 

got into a new Strait, much pefteied with Ice, and on the north 

Side of which we faw a Cape or Head Land bearing north i we had 

deep Water, and very ftrong Tides within four or five Leagues of 

it. I named this. Head Land Cau ff(fi, u it gave «s all gneat 


t73 3 

W and Hopes of its b^ing the extrame north Kart of jimericm^ 
iceiBg little or no Land to the northward of it. We tamed or 
worked roand it the HsbA Nighty and got five or fix litugan to 
theN. b. W. before we c^ild* perceive any otherwile than^ar fair 
and wide Opening ; bunpjMmt Nopn the fixtb Day» afiat hav« 
ing got into the I^titode^of 66^ 40', found we were ii^ytd^ 
and ^ two in the Afternoon coah) not go above three LBaem-fiur- 
ther; and ^having tried the Tides, all the Forenoon, ^.^iS^ two 
Hours till two o^Clock in the Afiemoon, fqund neicberjfibb nor 
Flood, yet deep Waters. From this it was condaded that we had 
ovcrdiot the Straits on the north-eaft Shore, from whence, the 
Flood (Came; and as there was no proceeding above three or four 
Leagues further, it wes agreed-upon by all to return back and fearch 
narrowly for a Strait or Opening near where we found the ftrong 
Tides. On the feventh, after' we were confirm^ the Flood camo 
in at the north eaft from the £. b. S. 1 went on Shore in th« 
Boat, and found it flowed fifteen Feet, three Days after the Fdl» 
and a W. b. S. Moon niade h^h Water; I travelled twelve or 
fifteen Miles from Hill to Hill inland, till I came to a. very hi^ 
Mountain, from whence I plainly (aw a Strait or Opening tbe Flood 
came in at, and the Mountain I ft(X>d upon being pretty near 
the Middle of t^s Strait, I could fee both £nds of it ; the wholf 
beittff about eighteen or twenty Leagues long, and fix or fevea 
broad, and very high Land on both Sides of it, having many fmali 
Iflands in the Middle and on the Sides of it ; but it was all froze 
faft from Side to Side, and no Appearance of its clearing; this Year, 
and near the 67^ Begree of* Latitude, and no anchoring the S^ips, 
being very deep Water doCe 10 the Shore, and mudi large Ice 
driving with the Ebb and Flood, and but. little Room if thick 
Weather iliould happen, whicfau we condnually e^q)e6k in thefe 
Parts ; it was i^teed upon in Council to make the bell of our way 
out of this dangerous narrow Strait, and to make Obfervationt 
between the 64th and 62d, Degree of Latitude. The Froxin Strati. 
I tdce to run towards that which Bylot named Cape Comfort % 
and the Bay where Foi had named a rlace L9rdW€jton*$ Portland. 
ft is in the Latitude' of 66^ 40% and 12^49' eaft from Char* 

Purfuant to the Refolution we bore away, and tried the Tides 
en the other Side the JFticonn^ (bunding and obferving dofe in 
ihore, but met with little Encouragement. On the nth of Auguft 
I once more (aw the Ifland ofBrooA Cobham, and continued trying 
the Tide, and ilill finding the Flood came from the eaftward, and 
by coafting along the WiUom^ was ceruin of its being the main 
Land, though mere are fever^l fmali Ifbnds and deep Bays, and 
faw feveral black Whalet of the right Whalebone kind. I worked 
iff and on by Brook dAham^ fent ^Cf northern Indiant aihore upon 
tkrjiiattdi^ who» HI their Retuniy^ve me to uadeiftand it was not 


fftr from their Country, f^nd defired I wpuld jet them go hon^t 
btfiag ' tired of the $ctL. I ktpt them with ASurances,' that I would 
mEt according to my Promifei atad finding joio I^Sbibility qf a Paf- 
(age in two or three Days aft^i*, 1 gaVe thSm afmalT^Qat*' well' iSt- 
tfrd with Sails and Oaurs*; fk6 Ufe (if 'which'^ they Kad been taught, 
and With Fire Aiins* Powder, Sh6t» -Hatdiets, 'and everv 
.Thing defiraUe to them. They 'took thdr leayp of me/ aiid t fent 
ymotlwrBdat for Water, which' aifcompanied tkeni a-(hbre, theYoutherii 
Jndicm being with them. Th«fouthem Indian^ who was Linguift for 
the northern ones, returned wiih the Boat, being vl^^l to the En^iijb Oiif 
loms tit the Fadtory,* and (kiirous of feeing fff^i^W, t^^^ Willing 
liandy Man, I brought liim with me. And the lame Evening, whicS 
was the 1 5 th of Aiqufi^ I bore HWay for England^ thinking to have 
tried the Tide at Qarefs Snvatfs Nefi^ but could not fetch it: On the 
20th faw ManfiVz Ifle. On the 2 1 ft Cape Dtg^s was in fight. On the 
«6th made Capi Refi/ution, and arrived at Cairfiila in'Poptdna^ one of 
|he Iflands ol Orkney $ moii df my Men being fo very ihuch afHifled 
with the Scurvy, and o'therwire' fick and dmeinp^rcfd, that I ihall 
be obliged to leave part 'Of them behind mie, and only wiut to imr 

frefs mnda td darry'ttie Ships -fafe to London. Fof the Particulars^ 
rnuft refer you 'to ' my Joufhal and Draught. I ptatf fend' to the 
Admiralty ,T this Sheet of Pa^r beinc not ni$ciejpit &i tfie pafticula^ 
Accidents. ' • ' ■. ^ • •-♦ 


Deai; Sir, 

» * 

1HAD both yours from< the Orkneys y and the Duplicate ye^ 
wrote When you arrived liilht Barnes, which I immediately 
Avered from L/iW«, congratulafing you upon your fafe Arnv^ 
With the Ships, after fodangerbiist a Dlfcoveryi and at the fame 
Time cxpreffing rhy Concern at your not having fSund^tJie Pai&ge, 
as we had reafonto^ have expe^ed it, if you had' found Thines i|- 
^reeaWe to the former Journals. I directed for you as formerly in 
London' fcreet^ w^x Ratcltff-crofs^ but found by a' Letter I had froni 
Mr. Jllan laft Night, that you have not got my litter. Since I 
have tiot a'Du^icate of what I wrote, I fhall now again fnention 
the chief Points I wrote to you before to be refolvcd in, and deiire 
your Apfwer and Opinion upon the whole, and hope you will ilill 
fend me the Copy of your Journal, and the Draught you matle of 
what you difcbvered. 

I am convincdd, from the Extra£t you have fent me of youi* 
Journal, that from the Welcome in 64 Degrees, to the Latitude of 
457 Degrees, there are no Hopes of a Paflage on that Coaft'; an4 
if there is any, it mud be further north, and confequehtly attended 
with more Difficulty i this feems to be afcettainei^ xxy your finding 
(6 large "fe River asth^tof Wager to the northward *of fPhaletone- 
Pb/^/,-^ai)d the Cspe yoi^ have honoured me with die Na^he of; 

ahd if ,tlie^ ^cih' Sirpkii ^er^ is Ut^ tlio CdntJB^xit throagfc. 
which itrana^..g^uft ))e fo:.nniich the bmder in t£at->Plac^. T 
fhould haye^bccfl jgUA^ to ii«^e pne j ot .yo\it .nbirthera Savages 
underilbwd t^^enjj^a^g^gpi of At EiUvfaitxSsLV^^u xf/hVch cmt otC 
boarii ^ojf.^*^ they, ini|ht/,th«n.jhiay€f gmn yoa Ibxne .Accoiint 
of that^ yountry and neighbopripg Sea, if aoy ii tiJesLt it to thi 

Voir omehred, that a W. b. N. Moon made bigfa Water,, and « 
W. b. S. .aboYc Cafi ^tfe in ^6,^.40', copfeqi^ntly the Tidis at At 
Ir J^^m/ muft flow pox^ the o^her as itisrla^erj^ but yo^ not a'c- 
ac^u^ntija^ ipe,^ whether the Lainds to^the .Eaftward, or Starboard^ 
as yoii iailed hbrUi, were Continuousr Iflands, makes me at a lofs ta. 
know wl^ther t^^T4de th^re cami.frOm the eaftwaiQ xv-fooim die 
' north eaflwarii by Cape Hofe^ and tne new .Strait yoa diicovered 
from the Mountain, through which the Tide came, from near Caps 
Cmfort on WeftoiC^^^poftlind^ where the Strait you faw ended. 
Now the Difficulty I find in accounting for this, makes me de* 
£re your ppinioju iy>0|i it • yt>a' have ;<onfirmed, that a W. b. N. 
Moon niiake's high Water at the' Welcome^ and a W. J>. S*. .ab'oVel 
Qfipi Bepe, Byht and Baffin affirm, ^hat a S. b. £. . M9on, makes 
high Water at Cape Comfort % if that be Fad, can the Tide, in io 
fmall a Way from Cape Comfort to ,Jh\it Bay above Cape Hope, be 
eight Points later, and only two Points later in going from Cape 
H§pe ,to thtTVeUome^ .fince you were there as near Cape Coenfirt as 
the PTelcome^ and therefore as the Strait you faw was made up of^ 
broken Lan^s, orlf^ailds to.thA nqrth-eailward, whether arotin^'^ 
thefe Ilbndji „ a; northern Tidj^ might not have Ikt: about fome ojr 
thefe. IJead-landSy.fts well as a fouth-eallern Tide from Hkdfih^e- 
Strait ^rz~r. \ idf^^idefire your Qpinion, whether the great Quan« • 
city of Ic^you found near the Welcame^ not mentioned by Fox ot 
ScroggSt was cauied by the Winter^s having* been more fevere there 
than^ ufi^al, or ^ether you imagine it was the ufiial .Quantity which 
is there every Xears %nd fmce you faw black Whatbs at'thelFV/-' 
cornet frpia whence ^o. you imagine, they came, fince fibne have -^ 
ever been x^ientioned to havjp beelilfeen paffing or. repSiSin^' Hti4/ek*e 
Strait? Thefe were the chlpf Things I would have hid ybur'Opt« ' 
nion upon, ^ Bji't as, .upon the Whple, I. apprehend it would be lA 
Taintopufhit apy farther that Way, I think the only fafe Way 
now> is by the Rivers of }f elfin or CJburchiil, by gtnng''up'''to their 
£Qd, fro;n thence defcending fuch Rivers as fall froin thente inni 
the Weitern Oc^at^. This can only be donb- by bylng' opeh' th* 
Trade, ai\d dii{olving jLhe Company for fo £ar, and then miking 
proper Settlements higher up ppon thefe Rivers to the' (buth* weft- 
ward in a mofe. temperate Climate i ahd therefore I de&red your 
Affiftance, if you approved of it, to inform me as much as you 
could of thefe Rivers and inland Countries, with their Climates, 
and what Advantages, we mig^t haye by making Settlements up • 
thofe Riveras in the Bottom and Weflern Side ot the Bay, which 

K 2 muft 


mnft enbrge onr Tfide,, and feoire our Settbmviti there, from the 
RtMcb, M tegdn the Trade whkh hat been loft to them by the^ 
Monopoly of the Company. As thit, finoe the other has foiled* 
would be a publkk Bensfit^ I htfe been preparing all I can to in-^ 
fisice ic» and fhoold be glad to have what farther Accoanti or Ma-, 
terials you can fumiih me with, from any Joumalt you have had or 
Accounts lof thefe Climates, Countries and Trade, and then I (hall 
make no doubt of engaging the Merdiants to join as in opening that 
Trade, and fettling thote Countries. 

Left this flionld mifcarry, as well as my laft, t have indcK 
fed it to Mr. Jlk* to deliver to yon, and hope to have your 
Anfwer as loon as you can conveniently, mA yoor Journals and^ 

. i wiih yo« Health and Profperity in all your Undertakings^ and 
am^ widi great Eftaem» 

Dutr Sir, 

Tmr mofi Aidiint humtU Sinuanf, 
Pttblin, November 

1IA&, J7Aa. A— kD 


SIR, LnubM, Nitvimiir 27, 174a* 

I HAD the Favour of yours, of the zodiuit. which happened 
to lie fome Days at my former Habitation, before it was for- 
warded tp ne ; and I fiuU tranfmit you the Chart, together with 
the Journal, and other Obfervations, by the firft convenient Oppor- 
toni^. In the mean time I ihall give yoa the beft Satis&ffion I am 
able, with^relation to the Difficulties that have occurred to you. And 
firft, it is to be noted, that all the I^md along the eaft Side of the 
IFelctmif from 64 Degrees of Latitude to the Frman Strait, is one 
continued level Land, fon^what like Dmi^nufst , low and fiungly« 
The great Tides yoa mention, which flow up the kiver Wagtr^ 
and cir Cafi DMs, come all from the Frmun Straits, E. b. N. by 
Compafs, aceording to the Courfe of the new Strait, that we pa&d 
between Cafe DMs and Cafi Hope, the mean Variation betwees 
the iaid Capes 40 Degrees wefteriy. and makes die true\Courfe of 
- this Strait neareft north ±q Degrees eafieriy ; the (aid Strait ends to 
the weftward of Cape Hopi, in a Bay twenty Lragues deep, and 
fifteen Leagues broad, which lies W. N. W. by the true Bearings 1 
anH we carefully furrounded it, failing up to the very Bottom with- 
in two or three Leagues, and found no Appearance of a Paflage 
for either Tide or Vefiels. All the Way as I failed from Cape Htfi, 
quite down to the Bottom of this Bay, I. tried the Tide ; and all 
round I found neither Ebb nor Floods which auft have appeared 


[ 77 ] 

lad there been apyi ThoXand was all: my Ugk and bold, aTcend- 
ing into the Country to ai vaft Height, without any Breaks ; £0 that 
had there been a Pauage here we conld not have mlffid of it, 
^ With regard to the Tide, which you think would have been ob- 
IbuAai ^om flowing fo< rapidly to. J^^gir kiver, if the Strait was 
fiosEe foft from Side to Side, 

I need only obftrve-to you, that at Churehill^ all. the Winter, the 
Tide ebbs and flows up the River in; the fame manner as if there- 
was no Joe, being lifted every Tide of Flood from 12 to 18 Feet, all 
except what is M to the Ground, and fails again upon the Ebb, 
though 8 or 9 Feet thick. Now dofe to the norrii End of the 
FroTun Straits, is lOO Fathoms of Water or more, and probably that . 
Depth may continue the whole Length; and then there is Paflage 
free for the Flood and Ebb to pafs without lifting ; but 1 obferved 
this Ice was all cmcfced round the Shores,, and . on the liland at 

You feem to be' at a lofs how to account for the black Whales 
getting to Brook Co6bam» if they do not l>afs and repafs by Hudfin*% 
Straits : Now, *tis true, I never faw any above 20 Leagues up Hud- 
^«*s Straits ; but I have traded with Iniians off Nottingham and 
Diggs, for Whalebone juft freih taken ; for my own pare, I cannot 
think thefe Whales come round Cmrfs Smians-Nefl^ but thro* the 
Fro9un Straits under the ice ; we faw many of them in Wager River, 
and in 63^ Latitude, and thefe may not come through HudfotC\ 
Straits, but to the northward, as all the north Side of f^»^«*s Straiu 
appear to be broken Land and J/Iandsf and Cumbirland hzy ^ Baffm^% 
Bay, and Straits Danns may have a Communication with this new 
F/vz/iv Straits, and Whales, ^c. may come from thence. 

It is hardly poffible to account tor the Difficulties about the Tides ; 
for.thoi^h it flowsE. S. E. at Rifolution^ and S. b. £. at Cape Diggs, " 
which makes five Points in running 130 Leagues ; yet it is but one' 
Point ia'going. down to Atbof^ and Mcofe River, for there it flows 
foutb, and the Diftance 250 Leagues. . 

So from Humber to Crmer on the Lincolon/bire Cot^k (as I mention- 
ed formerly) is but 14 Leagues, and at one Place it fiows W. b. S. |it 
the other N. W. Likewife from the frosoin ^traits to Churclnil is but 
two Points difirenee, or. one.Hpujr and half of Time, in the Diflai^e 
of aoo Leagues ; fo that I think no Rule can be fixed^ where. Tidea 
flow into deep Bays, obilruded by Iflands or counter I'ides. 

The Ice I met within the tVelcome, was mod of it to the north- 
ward of ail the Parts before difcover'd ; fo that none who went . be- 
fore me could have feen it; for moft of it lay to tile north of Wbaie* 
bvtti Point i and every Year is not alike, with rel'psd to Wind bring- 
ing it to the fouthward ; and it is entirely dire^ed by the Winds 
here, as well as in all other Ports of the Bay. In our way to 
Cburchill, ihefc was lefs Ice than ttfoally happens ; and it was alio 
feoner clear in the Spring, by 1 5 Days than conraion. 


[ r8 ] . 

m&MSAftlfMU no Hope of a F$^gi to Adi^tigt ^ftni- 
iStifft Trial between ebt^eWuni, to tit ai vft lUVIi' gone ; anH if 
thare be any fhrtUr tGPdie libithward, it niUfl* W^ im)^JO£bIe. for the 
IxSt, ni&ihi thitima/r^ of ttxfy fuch^Oudet; in^6V<^' dr'6&^ of La^ 
tttode, itornnbt bo defr df Ite'oife WetKiii a^ V^, and 1x1%^ 
Years, as I apprehend, not dur at all. ' 

In any oAer Atn^Ci; KUdlbe glad to'^vt^ySti'alt thS il^ft. 
atoca I can, ahd furriiih you with any oth^i*' fiifdr^tiahs that ydd. 
nkay think needful to ptbnJeW yodr Defi^nj bat Ihiep^never to 
venture royfdf that way zffasL 

My Friends bdihg out of the' Admiralty, I flnH th'txi will )Si a' 
gVeat dealof Difficmty hi get any thing done for ihe in the ^aVy at 
prefent ; or to procure any Other Reconipehce for inV Jj6($ Hiefc tWo' 
Summerb in WzvingiHt Hioffiifs-Bay SexVice, Wltfcfe I fhould haVe\ 
1400/. ih the Time' that rha*^e acquired but 166/. in the^Gdvern'*^ 
mentis. 1 remain, with great Sincerity and Refp^, 


Tourmoft obedlenrhluHiU Sirvanif^ 


P. B. The EJkimaux, ahd theNorthern'/«;//W> I had with me, 
were utter Strangers to dach other, in Manners ahd Lt'nguage'; nei- 
ther could I make theie E/kimam'x underftahd me by'the'^)cab'ulafy I 
had of the Language of thofe'in Hud/o»*s StrHiU. 

Dear Sir, 

]; HaVe yotir laft Favour of the 27th of Oaobir,iti Ahfwer to the 
» Difficulties I ftarted, which you have fiilly anfWered ; fo thif'I 
sA fiilly convinced there cai^ be no PaAge N^ W. by Sdi; as' v^e 
feemed to have had Reafon to exjpeA; and jthirifdre it would* ^^ 
very wrong to think oF'attempting'it for the future. ' Sfut I am mil ^ 
of Opinion, that tho Publidc may have a great AdviflfbM* by the ' 
lAdJ^'s Big Traded, if ii%<^1a«V)peh, aiid th6 Cbbitry fettleiiViglier; 
up upon thefe great Ritiihrf , wb!^ rinr infeqi tUs Bdf, hy'l^Ji, At^ 
hawf, the Senftnf. the mifin ' River ; ah3 thtfe^ Siftlim^fats, as i;he"^ 
Rivers come from gitatliakis to die Sduth-wefi-wkrd'of thi^ Bav]^ 
woaTd be in a much more temperate Qimaie, than at the^Mbiiths . 
of the Riirers, among the Swamps, when' they 'and 'the Bay conVinue' 
a much longer Tinie froaenV than farther int6 thd'Co'untry s (d thai" 
whoever would fettle higher up, might have' very ' cotxirdrfabVe and ' 
beneficial Settlements, and not only fttuit all th'^Codn^ry and Thide' 
Weilward of Mooft River from the trmcb of Canada, bUt alto by 
making a Settlement near the Lake Errice, WeO'^ard of Penjihama, 
above the great Fall oiMagara^ fecure all the Navigation of the Xakes, 
and cut oH their Communication with the Miffsfipfi^ and alfo fecure a 



great deal of the Trade to the I^h Baftward of thtfe Lakes, to 
Rupirf% River, and the Eaft Main. To ihew this to more Advantage, 
1 ihould want a better Defcription of the Rivers and Lakes to the 
WeiCward of the Bay : .1 have extr^ed ^019 Monfiear 7/rf/9iV» fill 
the Knowledge the Fnncb acouired, whilft they ppffsded Fort Bmirk/t^ 
ppoh N^i^ff River, who' was himfelf Come iiundred League^ up among 
ijtfie great Lakes whidi ^U imo I^elfim R^yer, which are in 1^ ceo^pe- 
rajte vlimate, and run thro* rich Countries. Now if yoo coficur in tbia 
Sciieine, we might, )by joining in ijbis Scheme, and adding what fii«- 
the^ you have obfirvbd, pr nave collided /ropi fiich of the CooBir 
mnies Favors or Servants, who may have been carious to fearch 
fnto^theje Rivers, give a much greater Light in the Defcription of 
thofe Countries and Rivers, as well as Charts of the Bay, 'and Ac- 
count of the fevend Cliniates, as may fully convince the Publick of 
^e Senehrto be made of thele Countries, by opening the Trade, 
and* fettling up9n the kivers. I have already sketched out from 
what i have rt^cl, and the Jqamals you gave me from AHaxf^ and 
the Nature of their Trade, wh^t ^y ihew the Advantage auy be 
made of that Tijtde^but it will be much more compleat, from 
what vbu are cap^le to furnifh ; and if you have no Thoughts of 
putiliming (pmethjng of this ISfature from yourfelf, J Ihall be gUd 
of your joining wiUi me in th|9 Attempt. I know Lord Cmrteret, 
tVin'chlfea^ and fe^r^ others, ^ho lyltl fuppgrt it, if a proper Plan 
be laid before them ; an3 pro^^bly, by the Heads of thefe Rtvert 
we might gain a Comaiun^atibn . lyith the Nations upon the Wef- 
tern Sea, Which may be of Advantage, tho* pothing io great, as if 
jche Difcovery ha^ been mj^ebySea. 

' I fhall be glad to have your Thoughts upon this, and what Ma- 
terials you think you could 'furnifii towards It ; and if we can pre- 
pare a reafonable Plan,***! (hall go over and pufh it with all my 

I have a Letter from Mr. Samuel Smith Yeilerday, that he haa 
forwarded to me your laft Journal, and that you will fend me your 
brauglit as foon as you have got it copied, for which I am sttj 
siuch obliged to you. 

I fhopld be very glad to hear that you were employed in fome way 
fatisfiiAory to you by the Publicly, which you have fo juft a Right 
to, after hiaving ^uit^ the Company's Service in order to ferve the 
iPublick I and wifli it were in my Power to contribute to it, 1 fhoul4 
^p it witb great Pleafure, and would go over upon that ytry Ac- 
toant, if it could be of Advantage : In the mean Time, I wiih yoii 
|U Happincfsi and l^ope to hear from ypu, being with great Eileem^ 

Pfor Sir, 
Publifi, Pecem. i^i . Thiiir mjt Obliged, aad\ 



Qitflitnt bitmble Servtmi, 

XVI. 81 « 




J Wis daly favoared with yours of the 14th of Dectmier; and tm 
forry that I could not return my Anfwer fooner^ but the ill Sute 
Health that I labour under, prevented me in this as well as many 
ether of my Afl^irs. 

It gives me much Satisfadion to find, that yoo approve of tlie 
'Solutions I fent, in regard to the Difficulties you propofed, and that 
you are convinced I have done all that was ntceffkry to put the Im- 
paflability thro* thofe Seas to the Wedward out of Queftion ; infuch 
manner as to render any Attempt needlefs for the future: but on the 
contrary, I (hoald have been infinitely pleafed» had our Expedidoh 
fucceeded accordin'g to the Reafonableoefs of your Expectation. 

I have ferioufly confidered your Propofition of laying open the 
HuJ/on's Bay Trade, and fettling jche Country higher up, upon thofe 
.great Rivers which runs mto the Bay s and tho* I may agree with 
yon in the great Advantage the PublicH would reap from mch a Set- 
tlement, (could it be made) in the Obftru(iion it would {^ve to the 
Frenchy both as to their Trade, and the cutdng off the Communica* 
tion with the Mifftfifpi, yet I Inuft declare my Opinion, that it it 
altogether impracticable upon many Accounts ; for I can't fee where 
. we could find People enough that would be willing, or able to un- 
dergo the Fatigue of travelling thofe frozen Climates, or what £n* 
couragements would be fufficient to make them attempt it, with fucb 
dangerous Enemies on every Side ; no Eunfians conld undergo fuch 
Hardfh/ps as thofe French that intercept the EngSflf Trade, who are 
inured to it, and are called by Us Waod-Runnirs (or Cnfreurs dt Sds) 
lor they indure Fatigues juft the fame as the native Indums, with 
whom they have been mixed and intermarried for two, three, or 
more Generations. 

As to the Rivers you mention, none of them are navigable with 
any thing but Canoes, fo fmall, that they carry but two Men, and 
tney are forced to make life of Land Carriages near the fourth Part 
of the Way, by reafon of Water-fallt during diat little Sununer they 

Out of 1 20 Men and Officers the Company have in the Bay, no| 
five are capable of venturing in one ef thofe Canoes, they are fo apt 
to overturn and drown them. Many of our People have been 
twenty Years and upwards there, and yet are not dextrovy enough to 
manage a Canoe; fo there would be no trahfponintg People thai 

ijhouid these happen a French War, the beft Step we conTd takt 
towards rooting them out of America^ would be, in the £rft Pbce» 
to take Canada ; which I make no Queftion might be done, it at^ 
tempted in a proper Manner, and at a right Sewn ef the Year. 

Had Sir H^enden Walker facceeded when he was feht-upon that 
Expedition, it would undoubtedly have been of great Advantage to 
IBS ^ fo( at that Tiara fhe fnndf wet^ not onf Ttmh Pvt fo nume? 

t&a% as novr that they have int^rnuurled wltK flit Nativef, Had Oftr^i 
ran (he whole Country, fo th^t it is become a Matter of infinite; 
Difficalty to root diem quite out of their Pofleffiopii and Trade ia 
Jimerica, . ^ . -, . 

I look n'pon Sir Hovindin Wa^tr^$ Mifi:arriage in his Expedition^: 
to be owing to this ; that he did not arrive there *tiU the latter End 
of Augufi^ at which Time he ought tohayebeen letuming:, and; 
whenever a War happeni agfiin with tranc$^ ihould it he thought; 
proper to attempt the taking of Caaoiia, w9 ought tp be in tkt: 
River of St. Lawrence by the £rfl Day of Jsmf at the &rtheft s and^i 
as to the Difficulties Sir Hmftndw complained of^ from the Unorr* 
uinty of the Currents, Fogs, i^§. they are fuch M .we now . makei, 
no account o£ conquering in Hh4^*^ Bay ^nd SmUs, where ihe/i: 
are certainly greater. I can fet the Currents and Ti^eain any Wea^: 
ther, even undef a Maiafidl in a Storm of Wind, (q as to discover 
both how faft, and upon; wha( Point of the Compafs it iets ; and- 
then as to obierving the Latitude in foggy Seafoas, I have feldontt 
mifs*d two Days together, if it be toleraUe fn^ooth Water, as you'lL- 
find in our Journals. Now I apF^hend that the Navigation in thft 
lUver St. Lawrence muft be at^aded with much fewcu^ Inconvenien*; 
c^s, than in Hu^jMi Straits, and thofe Coafls where we have na 
Soundings, much Ice, great Fogs, with ftjDong TideSt and variouar 
Currents. . ' 

This is the principal Matter that I can think of at prefent \ had 
not my Indifpofition prevented me, I ihould, beforp fhis Time^ havo 
drawn up fome further Account of eur Voyage, but I have Qothfng^ 
material worth imparting to you further, except a Ch^t of the whole 
Bay and the Straits, which will be engraved in i little Time, fof yout 
already have my Journals and Obiervations, as ytpW as the Accounta 
of thofe that attempted the Difcovery before itte. 

I am very niuch obliged to you for your kind Wiflbes, and all tha. 
flavours you have conferred on me, and am as yet quite uncertain; 
as to what their Lordfhips intend to do for me i they tre^t m^ withr 

at Re(pe£t, and fuch as I haye the Honour to know, to wit my ' 

>Vd Wincbtlftat Lord Balf(mre, and Admiral Cavemfjfo, have i^li 
Pfomifedmei their Favours. 1 am> 



Jamtary 1 742-3. bumble Servant^ 

liA. D pEfoi CHRisTo^H:&a Mi9DL|;r.o)f* 

Dbak. Sir, « Luiurtt, yantuuy it, lyj^Z'^m 

JN my laft to Samuel Smitbf | in^ofed one for Lpiid Catte/tet, open 
for your Per^al, upoi^ our Scheme of opening a Trade to the 
y^towhich I jcfer29aitn4iiif^4i'sX^ttir jttipteA what I 

L di£Doverea 

fbfeoyered from your fDttrntl at large ; that ^ou have midc a m)ick 
greater Progrefs in the'DifcoTery of the PaiTage^ than you imagine^ 
Mfktn there i and that from the Lights I have got from'yoor Journaf, 
lean almeft prove that you were in the Paifage,and that ff^ager kiver ' 
IB properly fTagtr Strait, and not a fraih Water River ; and thit the 
^ay you entered it was one^ tho* not the greateft ai^ ea^eft way ' 
^nto the Strait: I only want your Chart of the whole new difcovere^ 
^ Coaft, to eftablifh of contradi£k sny Judgment of it» which I am 
informed is come to DubUnt but not yec (csit to me. However* I 

g' n't delay imparting my prefent Thoughts of it/* and my Re^font 
)m your* Journal, to fhew you were in the Strait, but not in a frefh 
River; and that the chief Caufe of your taking it for a River was 
^rom the quantity of Ice, the ilraitnefs of the Tide, and its follow- 
ing you from the £aftward, and not meeting the Flood from the 
Woftward, which was one of the greaceii: Proofs we went epon, be- 
fore you left us. Now this laft Objedloii is eaiily anfwered ; that 
^d the Ocean flowed in near Whedthom Poin^ as we at firft expefled^ 
Wemuftthen have expeded to have ihefeabout» ipet the' Tide of 
Flood froni the Weftward ; biit fmce we find the Communication iis 
by a Strait, or Paf&ges thro? Jflands and broken Laqds, as in the 
Migilianick Straits ; there the Tide' continues to rife, until it meets 
the Tide from tht bthjpr Ocean, and the Flood is not to be expected tq 
sneet us until We have at lead got thro' half the Length of the Strait ; 
4nd if you wilt look into Narhorougjb^i Account of the ^ag$llanick 
Straits, you will find that a parallel Ihfianee. Thofe Straits are nq 
where above four Leagues wide, in moll Places , not above two 
licagiies, and in the narrow^ at the Eaft Entrance, not above a Leagu^ 
wide ; and yet he went about fifty Leagues into the Straits, before he 
jhct the W^^n Tide; Now you have full fironger Reafons for 
Wagtr^t River being a Strait ; it was but fix or feven Miles wide at 
the' Entrance on the Eaft Side, and but from i6 to iu^ Fathom deep y 
as you went up, it increafed to four, iivt^ fix, anq ^itytii Leagues 
wide ; Dur Sound, feven Miles wide, goes ofif frpm it, and probably 
etherarnbt mentioned in the Journal; fincethe Lieutenant, when he 
yii% laft up 12 Leag;ues above it, fays, he tried every other Inlet, to 
fry if he could me^t a contrary Tide^ or other Pafiage out, and'thp 
l)epth increafed to 70 and '80 Fathoms ; your mentioning alfo the 
lieigHt and Cragginefs of the Coaft, and not mention iz^g their being 
covered with 'Snow, t^' you mention that Brook Cobbam was, makes 
sne conclude that they were not covered with Snow » and there being 
neither Trees nor Grafs dill confirms me, that the whole was a Strait 
of fait Water, and that you were not come into frefh Water ; buc 
ttie*Numbef of Whafes and FiAi, feei^ as, high as ho went, and tovk 
being feen below, nor where the Ships lay, in Salvage Cove and 
SoUhdy^is k Demonftratioh tome, not only that it was fait Watec* 
btkt alfo that they canie in from the weftward, and that you Would 
Kave found lefs Ice the higher you went ; becaufe the Whales could 
)jot come thcfiP^ \f ichout r FaiG^ tolerabi}^ ficc from Ice,' dth^wift 

llii^y would have come as ftr tt ymnf yoar Ships lay, but did not 
ixoLule of the Ice ; and that muft oe the Reafon why y^aa did not 
iee them» ^hen you went up4o Deer Sounilf bdicaufe fit Ice ^as not 
then broke up where you werei as it was afterwasds when the Lieu- 
ieaant went up, and prob^ably was much foonet up to the weftvi^rd | 
from the Whales alio, v^hichyoufaw in the Bay. or Inlet between 
63^ andi^4^^ and thofe feeii by Fix Ift the (kme Place,^ and by Scrv^ 
in 64^ 8'^ and towards WhaUhone Pdint^ where tbe)r had no Ice^ 
iho' you met a great deal there; I coiicbide, there: bas.boen ihore lc« 
thrown in there this Year» than ufually is ; and. that nil that Cpafl ia 
a broken Coaft with Iflands^ and Inlqts» as Cuf^.JfulUrtm was, Jka 
jnentioned by ^cf^i ; and coBf((quently€bDcl|idr».that the.Whilea 
Came into that Corner of the Bay, fltim, the Upper End of that 
Strait yod were in ; and tlxat you happened into tJie ,inOft liortherly 
and narrow Entrance, into that Strait, and confequently moft pefter*4 
with Ice, and Uiat the mod eafy and largeft {n^et is'.to the ibuthviai'd 
of WhaUhone Pointy bttwixt that ^and the Head Land tiear Broola 
CMamin 63** 20'. . ^ , ... . , .» . 

My Reaibning upon your |otonul.I would have y6a confider tiii 
for t really think you have prov'd the .PaiTage., tho' ydu were not at 

bnce able to perfedt it—; what is only necefiai^ to fix or alter n^y 

judgmenti would be an Account of the Lieutenantfs and Maflcf*! 
Ubieryations, the laft time they went up the Stmitj what Deptbl 
they had upon founding, what Breadth the Chaidiiel epn^nned, which 
Way it was dire^d^ what Sounds w^ntoff from; it on either Side I 
a great deal depends upon their Recolle^ion of thefe things, as ilvell 
as whether they met with more or lefs Ice, whether Snow upon thi 
Land or not> for as to the Tides following them in n Strait it is no 
(Dbjeclion. , , . .... 

If their Accounts confirm the others I hare taken froni the Jbhr-^ 
hal, I think I may conj^ratulate you upon your having foiind thil 
lb mucn*wifti*d-£dr Paf&ge; ajid if it be one, am convil)c*d the mor<^ 
Southerly Entrance, thro' which the Whales cOme into the Bay,- will 
be free from Ice. — 7-I beg to have your Sentiment upon this, aa 
loon as you. can conii&er it, and have an Anfwer frOm .your Officers^' 
for the Prefuroption will be a great Inducement to open the Ttadc. 
to the Bay ; and in a further Difcovery, there t)eey}is no Wintering 
in the Bay, only getting there in ^he Middle of Jukfi and pulhing 
as £ir in the Strait as can be done in the Month ol Auguft, and thcR:: 
returning in Sefttrnfftr home, which is better than wintering .at 
Ckurcifil/, until the FajQfage through, leads th^|i\^tb: a;wafmfcr,CIiinat^. 
on the other Side. 1 (ball add no more, but that J: am with great 

IJear Slit 

Tour mJbft At^ien$ htSmhU Sir^fdnt; 
' A ' . ■ . D ^ *n . r 

lokr Anfwtr dnd Lord CarteretV, nmiL dtUrming pr^ gnng wer nesci' 

t'4 KVlILSifc* 

^- •• xnm- ■ ■ 

^JTOURS I teoeivM of ti Junumy. 5ftnd I atftf fiw yours to 
X Mr*. '5w/ii&^ with the incSos'd tq iny Lord Carttrtt, upon open- 
ing the Trade to the Bay. 

.^ Yoa fay, 1 bftve made a muth greater Progrefs in the Difcovery 
xS the PiiBige, than I imagined when there ; and that from the Light 
3frod have got from my Journal, ydu ean aJmoft prove that t was ih 
the Pafiage i -and that Wagtr River is properly n^i^ir Strait, and not 
» Irefti Water Rivtr ; and that the Way I entered it was one» tho* 
aDttfae^griateft ahd caiieft Way into the Strait. 
«< >> Vba aKo' ohferve, if there be a Communication between the Bay 
Imd the Wiftem American Ocean, or k PaiTsge thro* lilands and 
btt^en £iand»' as ia dte MagilkHukS\xh\X% the Tide will continue ro 
Hfe imtil we htffvgot half-Way thro\ and then meet the Ocean Tide« 
IPhfS I thought of when there» and made fereral Trials of. and alfo 
^dered my Officer^ to obferve the Courfe, Diredllon and Height dt 
the Tides at the fartheft they went np, as^ou will find in the in- 
dos'd Order; Now, as it fl6v^ed if lavages Sound i $ Feet, the 
iMne Day and Ude that it flow'd but To Feet at Deer Sotmd, and 
15 Leagues abo^ l>eir Sound on the weft Side but 6 Feet, the Tidei 
Htft their regalar COCirfe as high up as I was myfdf, which was j 
Lbigues above Dar Sound, that is about feven Hours Ebb, and five 
Hours Flood, • 20 ^Leagues up I whereas if there had been a Tide- 
from the weft ward to have met thiv it muft have raifed the Tide 
kigher the fbrtfaer we went up, as y^u fay it does by Varhorwgy% 
Aecoant of thefore^nftentionM Straits, and the Flood would have run 
not above two Horn's, as he found It there. All thefe Obfervations 
confirmed me, that it could not be a Strait as you feem to. think. / 
• - You fpeak of many Whales that we A^ on the Coafts, and in 
Wiigit River, ibme of which certainly came in at where our Ships 
entered 9 for I faw feveral in the JViUomt^ and fome oS Cafe Dohbs^ 
^ef we came out, and before we went in. The high Land and deep 
Water gave ma great Hopes, before I tried the above-mentioned 
Tides. Brook CAham was covered with Snow when we went^but i 
but in our Return home, there was none upon it ; the Snow on the 
Land in the River Wagtr^ was much wafted before we got out of it 
iq)on the Tops^of the Mountains, but in the Vallies it lay ytry thick, 
and hard enough to bear Waggons and Horfes. 

.As to any PalEige or broken Lands between Rivet Wager and 
628 40V I am certain I fearched that Coaft very narrowly all the 
Way lb and ftoodinto eve^y Bay fo near, that the Indians I had on 
board knew all the Coaft, and would have had me fet theni on Shore 
zt Capi Ful/erton; (or they knew the W»y to Cburchil/, and had 
travelled thai -Way feveral times in the Summer; which they could 
not have done-if-^t Cape were an Ifland, or any large River there, 
for they have no C^oes^ neithet is there any Wood there to raft over 

with, as to the Southward. 



The Copy of the Lienttnant and M^et*a Report, t litSM hM U^ 
dbfed ; but what is wanting there, I Aall mention here : the River, 
I Leagues above Dter Sound, is 8 or 9 Leagoes broad ; the Channel 
is 79 dt 80 FathoiiiB deep in the Middle, and lieth near M. W. bf 
true Chart ; as fiir as they went up, they ihet with as much ke or 
more thah below. Where the Ships lay i whtjik I was ap, I could gp 
no farther for Ice than 1 did» and cbutd not get over to thb wed 
Shore bat once for loe all the Time we were m the River; fo my 
real Opinion is, that this River cannot be above one Week br two 
at m6ft, clear of Ice in a Year, and many Ytliu not dear at all. 

For thejleafons I ^toention in my'Obfervatjons on the Efle^ts of 
Cold, when the Winds blow from the N. W. Quarter, there muft 
certainly be much Litnd to the WcftWard, covered with perpetual 
Snow, and the Laiid iroln the Water^s Side afcends gradaally up into 
the Country, and is very high, ai I faw horn off the high Land 
above Dor Sou&d. This is ail I have time to think upon at preient# 

I ain^ 

ff^fif gnat Ri/pea, 

four moft ^attiat bumhU SirVant^ 

Christopher Middlstomi* 

N. S. Thisarot^h Draught, and to all Purpofes the fame as a 

Letter I fcnt M^. ^ in Anfwcr to his of Januaty iiad, 17431 

but I can't ventuit to fay, ft is the fame Word for Word* 

\ ■ • XIX. 

^Ixiraa 6f a Littif 9/ W. D 

I heaitily wilh you Health and a profperous Voyage- 

1 recommend my Friend, Mi-, ^ith^ to your Care and Protcftion, 
boping he will behave well, and be diligent in what you employ hint 

i ^I hope we'ihall have a happy Meeting, and am with great 

l^rnth and Efteem, fc^r. . " 

Jl&y27, 1741. -A— — .p — « 

R0JJJf)j7 WJLSON. late Mafter of the Fumaa Sloop, 
Capt. Cbri/topher Middltton Commander^ maketh Oath, that he« 
this Deponent, being foon after laft Eafter^ 1 743, on board tbe Mary 
Bitinda^ in the River of Thamei, Edward Thonpfou^ la^e Surgeon <^ 
the Furnace aforefaid, and John Wyf^ate^ lace Clerk of the. fame» did 
then and there make a Viiit to him this Deponent, and did boik. 
openly and in the hearing of great Part of the faid Mar/% Crew de^ 
dare, that he this Deponent was the only Man they wanted to com« 
pleat a ^rtain Parpofes which, if he this X>epon'ent would join with 


% ' 

l^ukt^ in, jut tkis Deponent n^ight depend upon haying the fatilit V6^ 
as Capt. i^ddteton had the laA Vbyage, or Words to this rurpofe^and 
that apon this Deponenc^s asking theqj what they meant, they told 

him he muft go along with thim dired(Iy to t/it.D , for tliat t|iey 

fai^ Kf r. D wanted much to talk with hxni ; that accordingly he 

this Deponent did accompany thein to the faid Mr. J) , and that 

the faid Mr. /) ^ did importune this Deponent fo fet down feme 

Particulars In Writing relating to the late Voyage under Capt. MU* 
item : To which this Deponent anfwer^d. That he could give no 
bther Account tlian what he had already given in his joiirnal, whicE 
wasajuft and true one.; and that lipoii Uiis, he this Deponent left 

Mr. D , and returned back to his Buitoefs. And this Deponent 

further xnaketh Oath, that about two Days after> the aforefaia 
fbompjoH and tVygaii did make this Deponent a fecond Viiit aboard 
khe Mary afprrfaid, and that the faid lryg^$, tailing a Pen and Ink, 
idid much importune this Deponent, to let him, laid t^ygate^ write 
down an Anfwer to a certain Queftion, or Queflions, propbted to thit 
Deponent by faid Wygatei and that faid Wjgate having begdn t6 
Write, this Deponent fufpedUng that fothe Wicked Purpofe. might bd 
defigned t>y ^uch odd Proc^ings, did refufe to go on in his Anfwer^^ 
ind that^hen faid Thompfik faid. That he thought this Depbheiit 
nyu^h jiv the right to defii^, till he was better afTured tkpon what Con« 
fideradon he w^s to do it. 'And this Deponent further maketh Oath^ 
^at faid Thompfin and Wygate did come to him this Deponentf and at 
4 Hbufe near the Ttiw Crane^ told this Deponent, that they had been 
h^y where feeking him this Deponent, and that this Deponent an-* 
fwer*d. He did not approve o( their Schemes, and that they fhould 
carry him no more to Mr. D — ^ That upon this, faid fbompfifi 
did rave, and fwore. That then he this Deponent (hould be ruined ast 
well as Captain Middleton. And this Deponent further maketh Oath^ 
that about two Days after this third Vifit, he this Deponent meeting 
the aforefaid l^ygdte^ was by him faid Wygate afTured, that ^d Mr« 
2) — i. having been by him faid Wygate informed of what he this De* 

ponent had (aid to them, faid, Mr. D turned about and faid^ 

Ah ! is the Mailer gond over to the other Side P And this Deponent 
further make Oath, that at all times that he has been in Company 
with faid Tbompfin and Wygate^ they have expreifed themfelves in 
very malicious and fpiteful Words concerning Capt. ididdUtoHt and 
have abus'd him with vile and mbft iiiyuft Accufations and unbecoming 
Langiiagp. *. 4 ♦ • 

RoBEEt WlLSOl^. 

Middlcfcx. . Sworn Be/ore me the nth 
j/* June 1743. j.Poulfon. 



TO UN MAC KB EATS, this Deponent, maketh Oath^ that h€ 
this Deponent. was employed five Years as a Mariner on board one 
o i the Sloops belonging to the HudMs-Bay Company at Churchill 


[ 87 ] 

{tivet in Jtudfon^s-Bay ; and that he this Depopei^t hpd frequent Opr 
poftanides of obferving the Tides thereabouts, and that he did alv^^ayf ' 
take notice that in the faid Bay, and efpecially near Churchill, a north 
caft Windy when it blew any thing of a Gaie, did make the higheli 
Tides ; and that, on the contrary; the leaft Tides where when it b)owr 
ed from the fouth-weft, and that the Difference did fometimes amount 
fo 19, 10, or 12 Feet. And this Deponent farther maketh Qath,that' 
John Wygati^ late Clerk of his Majefly's Sloop furnaci^ and fdward 
^hompfon, late Surgeon of the fame, have within thefe three Monthg 
laft paft been frequently at this Deponent's Houfe at ^^7//%, and ' 
&ave often there by this Deponent bpen heard to boaft, that the/' 
Would dp CtLpt. MMetoh^s Bufmefs, and tfcat they would get him 
broke, and that they would take care that faid Captain Md^letoi^ 
fiiould never command another of the King's Ships, with many other 
the like ill-natttred Exprelfioni. And this Deponent further maketl^ 
Oath, that faid Wygate £ath iirequentlv faid in this Deponent's hear? 
iiig, that he faid Wjgate might be madi) a Purfcf of one of his Ma- 
jelty's $hips wl^enever he pleafed, and that he (hewed feveral Letters,' 

which he affirm'^ to have received from one Mr. A — ? D , ifi 

trdandi and that faid pj^ateMo afErmed, that faid Mr. i> 

&ad, in faid Letters, promifetl him- faid Wygate to reward him to hi^. 
Heart's Content, provided he "iliid fj^ate would draw up and figi^ 
fomething of the Nature of an Accufatfon againft the faid Cspt. Mid-' 
dliton, on Account of his Condu^ in his hit Voyage to the North- 
weft, and thatYaid Mr. D had been at his fcid ffygatis Houfe» 

£ncc his Arrival'in Engiand. And this !Depon<tnt further makecl^ 
0ath, that he this DepQnent had been credibly informed, that th^ 
faid fFygati hath frequently uttered the like Speeches, and made thi^ 
like Boailt in feveral other Places. 

]0^^ l^ACBEATH. 

S^orn before me at my flou/e in Great Kirby* 
"^* ilreet, Hatton-garden, the i ph Day of 
June 1743. J. Poolfon, 

XXII. ' 

T HO MAS TOWNS,ihh Deponent^ late Boatfwain of th« 
Dijcwety fink, maketh Oath, that he this Deponent being 
the 20th of yuiy, 1742, on board the faid -D//ffl^irry in Wager River, 
at a Place called Defr Sound, Captain Middle ton Commander of the 
Furnace ^Xdoi^t and Captain Moor Comn^ander of the Difco^ery tioit-: 
faid, being then juft come beck with the Boat from a Place called 
Ravage Sound, together with four of the Difcovery^s Men whieh they 
took along with them, the faid Captains, and the faid four Men> did, 
in this Deponent's h(;arin|, declare^ that th^y ha,d all ta^ed of thf 
Water in the Mid-channel of the faid River four lleagues above Deer 
Sound, and found it to^ be but barely brackifti, and that the faid ibuc 
Men did freely drink it for want of B^x^ rather than fuck the Ice^ 



Aa^ this Deponeit further msketh Oath, that when the Boat retura*^ 
ed from going up the River the laft time» which was on A^^uft t}i«» 
fitfti the Year aforefaid, Capt. Aiaar» Mr. Wilfin^ Mader of the iW*- 
pfice, and the Petty Officers that accompanied them/ did all give it at 
their unanimous Opinion, that there coulfl be no Paflage out of th^ 
River Wager northward or weftward, becaufe, as they faiii,the Freih* 
pcfs of the Water increas*d the higher they went, and alfo becaufb 
the Tide Sowed but fix Feet at the higbeft they went, and alfo b««' 
caufe they met with a Fall of Water, which would not fuftr theni 
to go higher, and forced the Boat to a Grapnell. And this Depo-^ 
nent further maketh Oath, that on the fourth of Jiquft 1 742^ about 
fix in the Morning, he this Deponent faw liiree Whales fpouting 
Water in Sir Thomat Roe*t Welcome^ juft without the Mouth of Wmt 
River. And this Deponent further maketh Oath,, that he is certain^ 
from his own Knowledge, that all the Way from the Froxin Straits^ 
fo named by C^pt. Middkton when he difcovered it, to Wagtr River, 
the Tide of Flood came from the saftward. And this Deponent fur- 
ther mafceth Oath, that Captain Middleiotf^ Behaviour, as far asithis 
Deponent ever faw or heard, was very kind and vfiiHd^ and that he 
ptver did threaten Puniihment to any Man for o^ering his Mind with 
freedom about the Coodu^ ufed in the intended Difcovery, or fay he 
would break open Chetts, and tajce away Journals or Papers. And 
this Deponent furtlier maketh Oath, that he really believes the faid 
Captain MlddUion bad the Difcovery at heart above all things ; for 
that he feemed overjoyM at every thing that feem*d to promife it» 
^ and kept acondant Look out and Examination of all- Shores; keep^ 
ing fometimes eight and forty Hours upon Dedcat atime, which muft 
1^ very fatiguing in thofe Parts to a Man^in his bad State of Health. 
And this Deponent further maketh Oath, that throush the SickneOi 
and Lamenefs of a great many, and the Unskilfulneis of fome, the 
Ships would not in all probability have ever reached Biti^land z^z\vk% 
if it had pleafed Cod to take away Capt. Middhtm before they had' 
paiTed Hudfin^s Straits homewards. And this Deponent further 
maketh Oath, that the two northern /^i^/Vzui were' fofar from being 
forced into a leaky Boat againft their Wills, that they went volunta^r 
rily into a good tight Bpat, which this Deponent faw well caulk*d, 
^nd put in Order but two Days before, and feemM highly pleaied at. 
their Departure, as well (hey might; for they had more Arms, Am- 
munition, and Goods given them^ than they could have traded in 
ieven Years. 

Thomas Tqwhs^ 
IWiddlefex. Sworn the 30/A Day tf lAz^f^ 
1 743> ^^'^rc m^ Anthony Wroth. 


ULRICK rON SOBRlEK,Utt Quarter-Maflerpf the 
Difcovery Pink, maketh Oath, thaton Monday the 19th Day of 
Jul^, ij^Zi being up the Riyex ff^4giV tbictor foar Leagues abovt 


J3^ Sn^td^ in iiA Boat wkh Ctpt^ il^il&^SrM GdtktBMder eC Hlie 
FBrnOci Sloopi lie thia D^bncnt^ md the reft of tke Hands in the 
Boat, did drink the Water in tJbe Mid-channel; and fo6nd it bull jnii 
brtckiih^ fo that it Aight very well be drank. And this Deponent 
farther makcth Oath, that the Flood Tide which floirs Up ihe Rirci^ 
i^ajrer, in at its Mouthy comes all firofli the eaft» or the ieaft by noith^ 
the Conrie of the New Strait by Compafs, and hem the fnsbm Stnfit 
round C4^e Frigid, (fo Mtted b)^ Dipt. MMkM the Qtfcovntfri 
where he went with the Boat on Shore, as he this Dvspoiient, being 
in the 5hipi coiild ferv well obierv^ nod difcektt, l9ie Ship being 
hailed in upbn th^ £bb» aUd fet off from the fud Scnit dpon thji 
Flood, whtlft ihe was driving and working to ftay Ibr the Captath*! 
toaiing off with the Boat) and not from the fonth-weftward, :as is 
wrongly reported by fome who ko6w nothiiig of the snatier. And 
this Deponent further oiaketh Oath, that all the wajr between 6ffkk 
Cfibham and Cape Dohbs^ that is^ between 63 and 6ft Degrees of U- 
ti^iide, they were fure of the main Land, and were never «ix>te direo 
or foar Leagues off the main Lihd, except in one or two Phun^ 
#herei meeting with Ihoal Water, they l%y*d to in the Night-time^ 
that they might not pafs any Place unfeen, and flood in ih(>re iii the 
Day ; that pS the Head-bind in Latitude 6^^' so', they weit ait 
two Leagdfs from the Shiohre, apd few there four or five fmall Whalet^ 
but nope at .Brook CMdik. And, this Deponent further makiith 
Oath, thtt he never h4ard of any Rumoers about anjr Negleft of tile 
Difcovery, on board either of the Slaps, bdt that qoke to the cos- 
.^ery> CaptAin Mddbt9M*9 Treatment was v^ry kind^ both to OfioeiS 
and Men i and that no body coeld take more Pains and Care id 
making all kinds of Obfervadons, which might help towards a Dif- 
coyery, than the Cftptatn, and alib inindmAtng others who wereig^ 
aorant to do the like. And this Deponent further maketh Oata» 
thai out of above twilnty Mea, which they lUd on bonrd the Dtfi^ 
€9^fy frotH CburebillkQmt't there weie not above lour or ^^t iii a 
Watch able to go aloft to hand or reef a Sail, including Officers,* th</ 
this Ship was much better manned than the Furnace i infonrach, that 
In ff'i^mr River they were obliged to (end moil of their Htnds tol 
affiH ab(»rd the Furndct^ where they had few befides fick Men. And 
this l)epoiient further maketh Oath, that dn the 4th of Au^t 1 741^ 
in the iVomthgi he thb Deponent did fee without the Mouth of the 
River Wt^ir^ two o^ three Whales of the Whalebone Kind, 

Ulrich Vom Soiittsii. 
Middlefex. ^nubm id June 174 j> 
htfwM me, Anth. Wroth; 


GJIANC E GR^tff, thU DetJdfieiit, lattr of Ai CifpeiskA 
Crew oh board the faid Di/covery Pink, maketh Oath, that h^ 
I his Deponent being, Juiy 20th> 1742, on board the laid Dijcwerj iit 

r ^o 1 

Savggi Samd in Wagir River, when Gapt. Mdd!ei9H of the Furndti 
Sloop, and Capt. Moor^ of the Difcoveryt return'd in the Boar, with 
fbor of the Difcovirfs Men, from above Sa*vagt Sound, he this De# 

. ponent heard the faid Captains and all the faid four Men af]^rt» that 
they had tailed of the Watpr in the Mid-channel of Wager River, 

, three or foor Leagues above Deer Scund, and fband it to be freffi, or 

; Imt juft brackiih i and that the faid Men, for want of Beer in the 
Boat, chofe to drink it rather than fuck the Ice, as they usM to do 
dfewhere. And this Deponent further maketh Oath, that oli the 
firft Day of Ai^uft^ the Year aforefaid, being the lad time the Boat 

*' returned from going up Wager River, he this Deponent heard Capt. 

' Mmt^ Mr. Wilfen the Mailer, and Petty Officers, all declare and agree, 
that furely there was no Paflage weftward out of Wager River Tor fe- 

!,Teral Reafoas ; particularly from the Increafe of the Freihnefs of the 
-Water in going up, from the Tides flowing but fix Feet at the 

• higheft /they went, and from the great Water falls which hindered 

• them from getting higher. And this Deponent further maketh Oath, 
.^at dh the fourth Day of Augufi, the Ye^r aforefaid, in the Mom- 
.ing, being then out of Wager River, and coming into Sir Tbomdr 
'Jtoe^i Welcome, he faw three or four black Whales, blowing or fpout- 

ing Water. And this Deponent further maketh Oath, that as to the 
.Dkcovery intended, Capt. Middleton feemM to give the utmoft Proof 
.-of his hearty Defire to eifi^ it ; and, tho* in a bad Sute of Health, 
rikept the Deck more than any Perfon on board, fomedmes eight 
snd forty Hours together, and frequently alOft i that he was careful 
'above all things to iearch all Shores, and chofe to lie by in the Night, 
.nther than pafs any Straits or Inlets that might afford a Paflage. 
And this Deponent forcher maketh Oath, that he never heard that 
the Captain threatned to punifli any on^ for fpeaking his M4nd about 
^e Difcovery ; but, on the contrary, he was always Courteous ia 
his Behaviour to his Officers, and kind to all, fometimes when they 
did not de(erve it. And this Deponent further maketh Oath, that 
both Ships were fo ilI.officer*d and mann*d, and in fo bad Health, 
that he verily believes that, next under God, all their Lives are owing 
to the faid Captain's Vigilance and CondudI ; and that if he had died, 
they fliould fcarce have eyer feen England zgm. And this Deponent 
farther maketh Oath, that before now he never heard or underftood, 
that the two northern Indians dcfirtd to come to England; bur, on the 
contrary, that they departed in a good tight Boat, highly pleafed with 
the large Stock of Prefents, Ammunition, and Arms they had re- 
oeived from the Captain. And this Deponent further maketh Oath, 
that he wag employed by Capt. Moot of the Di/covery, in making one 
Copy of the (aid Capt. Moor"^ Journal, and in finifliing another. 


G.RANOB Grant. 

Middlefex^ Sworn before me one of hi% Majeftyt 
JuJiUes of the feace for the County of Middlc- 
ImCj 27 May /i 743. J. Foulfoo. , 



^'IT^OMAS^ COOPE 12,thi8 Deponent, Ittc Mariner on bdwd 
_i, the Furnact Sloop, commanded by Capt. Miidltton, maketh 
Oath, that he never heard or was informed of any high of harlh 
Words, that pafled between the faid Capt. MiddUton Any of his Oi- 
fipers ; or that the faid Captain did any wife threaten to punifh any 
Man for fpeaking his Mipd freely abont the Difcovery ; or that k< 
threatned to break open any one's Cheft to come at Papers or Joor- 
nals ; but that on the contrary, his Carriage was at all times mild to 
every body ; and that by the faid Captain's encouraging tvtty one 
under f^ny Hard^ips or Difficolues, he this Deponent did, and now 
does iinQerely believe, that he earneftly endeavoured and defircd to 
make and compleat the Difcovery. And this Deponent further 
lAaketh Oath, that ahho' one of the northern Indians feeraed at £rft 
more inclinable to day than to. go home, yet that when they (aw whai 
Prefent3 and Arms the Captain had ordered to be delivered them, they 
both feei^ed highly pleaf<^, and willing to depart; and both went 
voluntarily into the Boat, which was n good tight one, without the 
lead Forcing or Compoi&on. 

Thomas Copjpak^ 
Middlefex, Sworn the zd Day of JvoM, 
1743, 6ffori me, Ant. Wroth. 


10 SN DEWIIDE, ClockMaker, this Deponent, maketh 
Oath, that on Tburjday the 19th of May, this prefent^ear 174I* 
ncthis Df ponent being in Conver^tion with JohnWyiate, late Clerk 
to Capt. Chriftophtr Middlefon on board the Furnace Sloop, faid Wygate 
did voluntarily declare, that he faid ff^jgate, together with Edward 
^mp/on,_hXie Surgeon of the faid Furnace Sleep, as alfo with John 
Rankin, late lieutenant of the (ame, being on a certain Day 
of a certain Month, which this Deponent cannot at this time 
recoiled, in the prefent Year I743t by the Appointment of one 

Mr. D , at the Offioe of. Admiralty, (aid Mr. D— -coming to 

them out of the Room where the Ix>rds CommiiEoners were then 
fitting, and addreffing himfelf to the aforefaid Rankin, (aid. Well, Mr. 
Rankin, 1 have engaged to their Lordfhips, that you ihall be no moM 
concerned in Liquor when on. Duty, and. you may rely upon the 
Command of a twenty Qun Ship through my Jntereli, or Words to 
that tS^ i and that Mr. D— - addreffing himfelf next to Edward 
nompfin aforefaid, faid. You are a very good Surgeon Mr. ^ompfiup 
and I will recommend you as one every way qmlified to be* a Sur- 
geon in fome of his Majefty*8 Hofpitals, or Woids to this efied ; and 
that fai4^.Mr. D--~ feeming to udce little or no .Notice of. himfell 
the find Wygaie, hQ faid Wygati fpoke to (aid Mr. D — ^ to this pur-' 
ppfe : Mf, />-r— ^, you feem to have forgotten, me ; and that . iiinl 
|4r. J6 — — anfwer*d. Not ib, Mr. Wygatu tbere avill be twoorthiMr 
SH^p* int 9JK ftg^lk the n^ Yp»r upon tlw Difeon^i imdyoii ftall 


be Porlpr qi the beft of them, or Words to this eiea. And fpfj^^- 

en Ms Deponeot baksch Oath, dial fiud JfJiati hid ta hhn i|iis 
pOBCnt, at the faiae time, I know that Capt. MidMitm coants 
^Owitpfiu 9 Fool> and roe a Sot ; and by G — d 'tis true enough ; or 
Wonls to this eifeft. 

Joim D9Wi|.D|. 
Swant at tb$ GidMaU, Xx>B^0|l| ^ti JwBfi, 
f 743, ^ij^^ Mi £4. Bellasij, 


Mr. D ^^8 Iff Or ff March 25, 1741, Ar C. Middleton, 

. Dj AR Sir, Sujfilkfirnt. 

^"T^HE Bearer, Mr. Jthn Lanrkk^ it the Pcrfon who has rerblr- 

-'X '^^ ^ P*i^ ^^ ^^/ ^"^ ^ World by going 10 Sea ; he has 
fieeir bnd a Scholar, and has a ibber good CharaSer, and proppfef 
inaking it his Stady to become a compiete Seaman under your Com- 
inand 1 as I have a Value for his Friends, I don-t doubt but you will 
jMomoce his being- i|nd^ * BP^ Sailer : and I date fay, he lyill do 
his utmoft to obey your Command9 in eve^ ihing, and aponr hir be- 
Wmg wek, yea will give him your Prote6Uon and Affiftance. | 
Jhali add |io m^roi but that I an» with great fifteent, . 

Pear Si|t, 

Tmtr moft obedient bumbi^ Servant, 

A— I 


Jj^xtra^ ff t/am Ltitars fnm Jir. John Lanrick t^ bU Faiber - * \ w 
. W by bim fitbii/lbU in jewral N.nue F^ftn, i» Nevembier 1 74?. 

Froft on board tbe Pnrnace in Chnichill Rivera June at , 1 742. 

TH E laft Place I. wrote to yon horn viras the Orkneys. I theii 
exprafs'd ay entire Sacisftiaiqa in the Choice I had made, 
diough, in (bme m»fure, oo^trary ta.your Inclination (which indeed 
IS. the only thing ti^at concerns me) nor hat a longer Trial pf the Set 
li^ade me as yet repent, or in the leaft Degree leflenM my Satisfa^iont 
isor do I fee how it fhouki, fince I have ne^r met with any thing 
but Gentleiaen^s Ulage, both from Coinmander and others. ^ 

lieie we have undergone a moft terrible and fevere Winter amidft the 
tnew and Ice.- — ^It is impeffiUe te a: give a jut Idea of the Severitjj^ 
el th^ Weather %o any ¥ntbm who hat never perfonally feen or fek 
^s £ft^9; it fieespet so fu^h a degree, thai no Man whatfocver is ab!f 
aeftcethe.Weatbef^ with any Part of hit Body naked or expofed> 
km in thd flionefrSpi^ of time h^ is froaen in fuch a manner, that 
die Part tumit whitiSk and (olid like Ice 9. and when thaw^ bilttess 
Kke Scald or Burning* Seyanl of oai? Men have loft their Toes and 
Fingers, by being freaoe; nay the Spirits of Wine or Brandy fttcse 
dnditaan:folid.-t-^The:;Jce we liwiDd Htvea Feet thick ki die Nfijf« 
ftfesMi of the RivoK ^ T^eie it no DIfeafe w Diftemper prevails heif 
^ tfa^^vvyf fagr'^fiKl we havf loft tfip of the M of 0tir Seamen. 

c\ XXIX, 

>. • • • h^ 

[ 93 ] 


Qrimip, Sept. 1 6, 174^, 
•Tht laft time I wrote to you was from Cbmrcbill Foit- 

The fii-ft Day of Jufy we fet put a|>on our intended Diicovery. The 
eighth we entered Sir ^hot^u^s Rois JVekomt, which is about 1 4 Leaguee 
ii crois. Tue Aintk we fell in with a vaft Body of broken Ice, in 
wkkh we were eauegled thite Days, being obliged to ply our Warpe^ 
»d GrapnelU. Thi twelfth having got amoogft fomewhac thinnctf 
ice, we fet fail, and flood over for the north Shore. In Laticndie 
6$^ lo'v we named e high, Laad Caps tiobhs, in honour of £fquire 
DoUs ; (^etfving an Opening to the northward of the Cape, we $oo4 
in for it, defigning to come to aa Apchor to try the Tid^; bqrfind* 
lag it was the Mouth ^ a great River, we n^i about 8 Leagues op 
it, and at laft were ^ig*d to coine to an Anchor amongft broken 
ice, where indeed we role in the greatcd Dangei , on account of thai 
Breat Lodges of Ice which dvove againft us with the Tide.— ^The 
fourth ot Aifgitfi we left $h^ River, 4iid ftood away for the northward: 
being blefled with ftne Weather $ we had a fuU ProfpeA of the Laiid 
pa each Side. In ihe Lathode 66^ 30', we faw the Land fltetcl| 
away to the weftward, which gave ns great Hopes i| but . afterwafde 
found it to be nothing bat a Bay, Land all round. Th^ ftsinding 
away for another Opening on the eaft Side, \ve laid the Ship to, and 
went afhofe tt> take a Survey A'om the Top of a high Mountain, 
when we could fee the Sea, all feft froste m one foiid Body for a 
Matter of twenty Leagues away to the S. E. and finding at the fame 
time that the Flood Tide came f/om thence, we were fully confirm- 
pd that it had a Communicatiqf) with the eaft Sea, aid that thene waa 
^o fuch thing as a Ptfi^ into the weftern Ocean, as we e:^pe^d. 

The eighth of Jugu/t we bore away to the foqthwaid, and made 
fome further Search about Latitude 64. Thus having travef s*d all this 
long Bay, the 1 5tb we took bur fantwcl of it. 

Never were Ships worfe mannM ; feveral of our Men are dead U^ 
the Country; the onehs^f of .xiie Remainder fo taken with the Scurvy^ 
that t^ty have been incapable of doing DHtyr 

X3(X. ; 

TH E Soundings up the eaft Channel between thf Iflandsandthe 
cad Side or iflands is 49. 40. 30. 2; Fathoms deep, foft 
Ground in the Middle of the Channel, and 16 Fathoms to 6 Fathoms, 
within a Quarter of a Cable to fome of the Iflands, and good SOond« 
ings through in manv Channels ; between thoic Iflandi Depth or Wa- 
ter is iS Fathoms wher^ I founded, and 7 or 8 Fathoms witliiA halJF 
a Cable of the I£|andft s the Channel between the Iflands and tsR Side 
is 3 or 4 Miles broad ; we got into a. Bay or Cove on the eail Side, 
good deaii Ground, and Soundings from 30 to 5 Fathoms; the 
Tide came from th4 fot^vygrd ihrotigh the l<hmd$j, u ^owed it 
?eec, ^ 



The Borthmoll I/lands bore N. b. W. diftance 4 or 5 Miles ; the 
Soundiiigt from the Bzy or Cove to the northmoft Point of this Side 
off the filuff, are 45 . 40. 30. 20 Fathom Water, according to the 
Diftance we were off (hore s above the Iflands from the eaft Side to 
the fouth-weft Side, is i z or 1 3 Leagues broad, the Land runs N» W« 
b. W. the Tide flowed neareft N. W. b. W. along fhore ; we run into 
e Bay or Cove at the north £nd of the Point this Side of the filoff 1 
iJie Soundings from 20. 15. 12. iq. 8. 6 Fathoms, good cJca^ 
Ground, and dear of Ice. 

The Tide came from the fouthward, it flowed 13 Feet and a half s 
|he Straits above the Ifland 1 2 or 13 Leagues brosid, I went opon 
the higheft Land on theea£L Side, and fet theLand ; there js a Bluff 
upon the fouth Side, widi three low iflands off it, and a low Point at 
the Back of it, that bore Southby-eafl off us, end a low Hoping Point 
that bore Soatiubf-weft off; with that Opening to us, the Land runs 
from S. b. W. to the N. W. a high mountainous Land ; it runs down 
' Yvith a bluff Point, and a low Poins at a>fmall Diflance from it, and then 
runs up to a very high mountainous Land and round to the bluff Point. 

There is an Opening, feemingly^to me from the high Land, pr Bluff 
i was upon, it being about a Quarter Flood or more, by the Tide that 
eame through the Straits ; I law the Ice bmaH up and fet ronnd the 
Point I f^ood upon, with fome force, that all the Ipe was prefently in 
inotipn, in the Middle of the Channel againfl the Flood, and was moft 
clear of Ice in the Middle this Morning ; it is 9 or 10 Leagues brpad. 
Jft/y 16, 1742. John Rankin. 


TH I S is the Cove upon Brook CMam^ or Mmrhk liland ; it 
was almofl dark, my Men were taking the Skin off the Bear 
they had kUled in the Water. 

Tbi/i are all Faihoms. 


^S s -f'S ^^ 

Ihi, If Hi If tit l/U^ith If tht Cwi 

• « 

This Tide came ia fuddenly from tlie W. N, W. nkmd Ae N. W« 
find of che Ifland apon us^ and flowed fo faft that we had almoft loft 
the Bear: we were forced to throw it into the Boat, my Men up to 
their Middle in Water, by the Indden flowing of the Tide, as all tht 
Men can prove. 

I am very obtain, that there is a great Probability of a Paflage^ 
orStraitSf leading to foine i^eftern Ocean, from che above Reafon ; 
for I did perceive an Opening to the weilward of MarhU Ifland, and 
defir'd I might go there } bat he told me, it did not fignify mach to 
go thither, but if I had a Mind to go xo Marble Ifland for Water I 
might I fo I did not come nigh the Opening I perceived tothewsfb- 
ward ; it was almoft calm all the Qay we lay there. 

Avguft i2| 1742. John Rankiv. 


NUadlitm. • ; 

ON E would be apt to think, that the Lictitenant*s Paper, on At 
foregoing Page, related to feme Co^e of no fmall Confeqaeno^ 
by the Pains he has been at in taking the Draught and SoundingJdf 
it. Yet when I ask'd him, what Ufo he propofed to make of it \ 
He atifwerM-, That the Bottom was full of Pebble-ftones, and it would 
be an excellent Place for Ships to come from England and load with 
them. Hence may be conje£lur*d what a^ high Opinion he enter- 
tainod, at that Time, about a PafTage there. 

This Account is exa£lly of a Piece with all his other Papers and 
Reports during this Voyage, dark and unintelligible. T^ere fS hardly 
an/gueifing what he would be at. If he means that the Fibod^^ide 
came rouna the weft End of the Ifland, the Reafon thereof fnay be 
ytty eafiiy afligned : For this Ifland lying diredty in the Tide's way, 
and but two or three Leagues from the Main, the Tide muft conw 
round both its Ends : And there being a Bay formlsd between the Head'* 
land in 63^ aa,<and another Headland almoft againft the well End 
of the Ifland, which rounds away to the eaftvvard of the fouth/the 
Tide thereby receives that fett 1 and this is what deceived him, and 
made him believe it came out of fome Irriet en the weftern Shore. 
Here he unjulily accufes me of hindering him from examining ao 
Opening ; and in hit Anfwer to ^ery 20, fays, I can*t fay that tho 
Capain difcourag'd or difeountenanc'd me in making any Difcovet/^' 

DfiAR Sir, ^' 

I Received yours the Laft Night which did not a little furpr:ze mt 
that My Lord Wimhelfia AM^^dit^ that I was Drunk when I took 
my Leave of him. I do afTure you I had Drink no no More theA 
the Share of one bottle of fine Eall between three of ws at the Duko 
of Portlands, where I Dinned and tw6 Glafs of wine after Dinning, 
then I went to wat upon my Lord and take my Leave of him and' to 
give chf Duke of P<7//i^/7i/ Service to him. ' 

1 am 

U6 1 

t m O^Sr ifAnMrx>Waa to yoa for tkeciMt IWndtff '76 
iuivtbeeii plcftiM to Do M€» Til giviftg me a good Carreer tOiBjt 
dbofd, and ^ Jmc^kJckimtb, I fh$X\ for Ever Think Uj Self bowoi 
ti.tvay for your gpod Hfnikjh, and Frofparkf ^ if ever it (hoidd be hi 
my pour to ferve you by Night or Day« I ihall aliways Thiiik m/ 
^ ki Duty hcftkfid to Do k. 

, Deaf Sr I beg the faviour off yttu sot to Think I Erifr Oiall be feen 
in lix^T in this Ship } M fom of my Friend at thU Navy oftcd told 
iRe Warr for S^esie Complants had been Made againil my Capt^ 
bat l>t Sr 1 have a Soul hxi above uking any Nottice of any Thing 
lMittQ.i^p«w:k all the good of my Com^mander I Quin, he hii J>Qd 
Very well by me ai to the time I )^v6 been: With him, bat I tfever £«- 
caed two or thiee Glafs of Wine at a tiihe nor fliall wliile I amr with 
him, Sr Jacob Jickworth Sent his Service to Me by a frieiid tfiat is go-^ 
ing jtoiTenger with ws to Port Mabon becaws he was .afraid to write, 
for fear it fhould fall in wrong hands, aAd (aid he had beared a Very 
Uted Carrictcr of ale for Msiinr Years, and aU the Service he GoOfM 
2>o me he would Sr my Wiff gives her humble Service to you anil 
taili wat upon you as foon as Syhe Cometh t0 Town. 

Long Reach /-M 9h HumbU S^^- 

itrd ibi Fonimo^t . Jn°. Rankia^ 

• Fcbr. I A— 1741. 

-• '•-- • • ' • • ^' ^ 


QUE R r E S 

To be Anfwcrcd by 

John Rankin^ Lieutenant, Robert ff^lfoHyMaf\:eYi Edward 
7bompfon, Surgeon, and John If^ygate^ Clerk, lately 
tinder the Command of Christopher Middleton^ 
Commander of His Majefty^s Sloop the Furnace. 

Q U E R V I. 

Wtittber tbi lajk iim$ tbi UeuUnani ami hUfifr ijtjeni wf 'Wstgfii 
Rivitf tbere nvas any Ice to interrupt their Paffage in the Boat 4 
from the time they left the Headland above Dcct SounJ^ until the) arrived 
at the high Bluff on the nueft Side of the Channel ; and vohetbMr tbi 
tVater nuasnot Jalt^ and ab&vefxty- eight Fdtbm deep, the nuholi Wt^ 
aotfr, and the Strait from eight to ten Leagues nvide ; and nvkttber : tit 
Channel Courje, after tht^ came up nuitb that Bluff, did tut bear iiotfi* 


. Lietaenant^s Anfiwer* 
There was no Ice to interrupt our Pafiagey from the time we ileft 
the Headland above Deer Sound, till we came to the nkawft Fart o( 


t '45 3 

tame to Ac utmofl Part of our Voyage up the kiv^r on the Wcfl £6^ 
x)f the Channel ; the Water I think was fait ; but as I would not en- 
tirely depend upon my own Judgment, I filled three Bottles with Wa- 
ter at three different Places, and brought them on Board at my Return, 
and was told there was no Diftinftion, for they were all equally alilic. 
fait. I could find no Ground with a Line of 68 Fathom ; I fteered 
W. N. W. by the Compafs along the wq£1 Shore, a &ir open Strait* 
or Channel, eight or ten Leagues, wide. 

Majier's Anjnver] The laft time we ,went up TVager Rivera we had , 
not much to hinder the Boat's Paflagc. Above Deer Sound the Wa- 
ter was much frefher, and the higher up the freftier flill j the River 
was eight, ten, or more Leagues broad in the broadeft Part ; thd; 
Water 68 Or 70 Fathoms towards the Middb. 

The Courfe We fteer'd in the Boat after we came up with the bluflF 
Land, was N. N. W. but the Courfe of both Shores, by Compafs 
from 4 Leagues below, where the Ships lay at Savage Sound, to the 
higheft we went up with the Boat, is N. 5: 1° well ; the Variation be- 
ing north 35^ well, makes the true Courfe of the Channel north 50 
Degrees weftcrly. 

Surgeon* i AnC'wer'^ I have nothing to fay t6 this Article ; it chiefly 
concerning the Lieutenant and Mafter, having never been higher ug- 
the River If'ager than Deer Sound. 

Clerk' sAnfwer'] This I beg leave to refer to the Lieutenant and Mafter.* 

Query II. Whether <when they woent on Shore on that high Land^ thi- 
Lieutenant did not (ee a greatOfening\pr large Collet ion oftVater over thi 
Ifiands to northward of theniy wijith broken Lands to the lueft'wardy ai 
high as the Lands at /^^Cape of Good Hope ; and ivhether the Mafter^ 
"^ho nveni much higher vp upon the Mount ainsy did not overlook ail^ thg 
IJlands in the main Channel j and favj a large Vajfage or Strait, four or 
five Leagues vjide^ beyond them^ the Channel CoUrfe hearing direSIl^fiuth' 
ntse/i vuitb high Lands on each Side, all thereabouts appearing to be broi^ 
en LandSf thf «whole Channel free from Ice or any thing to 
ohfii 2/t7 their going further , ^'h ether he did not find the Water /alt there 
and upon his Return to the Boat 'was defirous of proceeding further ; but 
the Lieutenant having already exceeded his Orders durft not go any fur* 
ther, ^ ■ ^' 

Lieutenants Jnfiverl Yes, I faw a great Opening, or large Colec- 
tion of Water, to northward of the Iflands wliich were in this River^ 
or Straits ; and there appeared broken Lards to the weftward, ashigli* 
and mountainous at the Cape of Good Hope, The whole Channel was 
free from Ice. I could not ftay any longer^ to make Obfervations, 
having exceeded my limited Time, and knew the Ships were prepa- 
ring to fail out of the River. 

Mafier*s Anfvf^er'] For an Anfwer to this Query, I refer to the Re- 
port given in to Capt. Middleton by the Lieutenant, and myfelf at our 
Return. I can make no Comparifon between the Height of the 
lands in queftion, and thofe at uie Cape of Good Hope, having never 
been near the Cape. »• , . 

N ■ Surgeon\i 


Surgecu^s Jfi/iver] This, like the former, appertains ip tt^ 
l^ieutenant Und Mailer; but I heard both their Reports, hi 
which they both sfgreed, as to the loteot and Meaning of thi*. 

C/eri'*s Anj^er] This Al'ticle I dcfire may be anlWered by the Lieu- 
tenant and Mailer. 

Query 3. IVhether the Cdj>tain did not limit tbem to go only to Decr 
Sounds or thereabouts^ and fo come back ivitb the utmofi Di/patcby tb§ 
Nature of the ^ertviceicould allo^jo of i and 'whether after their Jailing 
aho^e fifteen Leagua further^ and ginning him a Return tinder their Hands » 
that there nxas another Fajfage into the Sta^ befides that the Ships tuent 
in at, the Caftaht did not immediately prepare to fail out of the Ki'ver^ 
nxjifboht proceeding upon the Di/coruery^ and Jailed out of the Rpverto tht 
north ^ eafi<ward of the fourth oj Anguft ? 

Lieutenants Jn/hver"] 1 he Captain's Orders, ih Writing were, that . 
I Would go to Deer Sotind, or thereabouts, and to come back with 
the utmoft Difpatch ; but I defired he would give me liberty to aft 
as I thought moft conducive to the Difcover/ of a Paflage , and 
he verbally confcnted that I might run up the Riter or Straic, as far 
as I could conveniently do, without retarding the. Ships from failing' 
out of the "River, for that he intended to fail in a few Days, ana 
which I found to be true ; for the ^hips were preparing to fail befor* 
I came on board. 

• Majfer's Anfiverl The Order, thro' a Hurry and a Miftakc of th« 
Captain's Clerk, as the Captain told him at our putting off the Boat, 
was to make Obfervations in and near Deer Sound j but he gave the 
X<ieu tenant, as I heard, afterwards, verbal Orders to proceed as far 
OS he thought proper. At our Return we gave the Capiain a Report, 
(Igned hy the Lieutenant and myfelr . The Captain did, and had fc- 
vcral times ijeen endeavouring to get out of th^e Cove in order to pro- 
ceed on the Difcovery , and failed out to the eastward on the Difcovery • 
to meet the FL od Tides, accordir.g to his Inilrudions, on the fourth 

Suro'OfPs Anfkvn'] T\\t lieutenant fhewed me the Order the 
Cnprajh gave him when he went up the River, the Words of 
which was exprcfly in the Manner as here fet down ; and after 
they had given in their nepqrts, the Captain prepared, for failing, 
and accordingly failed oat ot the River fVager the fourth of Augujl , 

' Clerk's A^fv:er'\ I very well know th?it they were L'mited to go only 
p Deer Soimd, or thereabout, and ordere<l to come back with the 
jitnioft Difpatch 5 and that the Captain faid, when the Lieute- 
nant ftaid longer than time, that '* he did not doubt but 
** the Lieutenant would bring fonie romantic Story of a Paiihge 
<* that way, but he fhould give no Attention to it ; for he would 
'^* fail out oif the River as loon, as he, returned," which accordingly 
*? he did. 


C '47 3 

, Query j. Whether there *were not many Idrge hlach Whales aBove 
JD^r Sound in that P^age, and ivhether they fam) any Whales belo^^ 
jr at the Entrance^ or nuithout Wager River ^ either in the Strait 0r 
Bay above Cape Hope, or in any other Part of the Bay or Straits of 
Hudfon^. except on the north *weji Side near Brook Cobhani ; and nvhe* 
tber they believed thofe Whales came in from the eaft or vutft End of the 
Wager River or Straits ^ and i^hether^ in their ovjn Judgment^ thcf 
did not think that there might be aPaJfagefrom thence tothe/outb-vjeH' 

Lieutenant'* s Jn/wer"] I faw a great Number of black Whales, of 
the Whalebone kind, in and near Deer Sound, and no where elfe, 
except SLtBrookCobham,! can't think that the Whales we faw in^^^fr 
River came in at the Place our Ships went in at, but rather through 
the Channels bounded by the broken Lands on the well Side ; and it 
is my Opinion, that, there is aProbality of ^ Paffage to the fouth- weft- 
ward from Brook Cobham from the Rapidity of the Tide there, which 
I.imagine comes from a wcftern Ocean, and fills Wager I^iver. 

Mafer^s An/weryThc Whlales we faw about Deer Sound, I be* 
lieve came in at the Mouth of W/;^er River, or fome. other Inlet from 
the eaftward, to the new Frigid Strait, which feems the more proba- 
ble as being not far from BaJ^n^sBay or Davis* s- Straits, where the 
freateft Numbers of \y hales are fecn ; aud not lefs than four hundred 
)ut(h, Spaniards^ kc, go every Year to t^ke them there ; many of 
which we met in our A^oyages in the Hud/on'* s Bay Ships, and they 
often came on board of us. 1 cannot think there is auy Pailage to the 
other Ocean, hccaufe the higher we went we found the Water the 
frefher, and met with/eyeral. Water faJIs mentioned in our. Report. 
Moreover, at the Mouth, of Wagen Riyer, the Tide rofe i6 or i8 
Feet j at Savage Sound i ; or i6 ;. at Deer Sound bi^C i^ or 13; and: 
where we went farther, but 6 Feet. 

Surgeon^ s Anfuoer'] Every one that was as high up the River as2>^«r 
Sound faw the Whales come in there every Tide. But none wv 
Uver feen below at the Entrance, or without Wager River, nor in the 
Straits or Bay abpve Cape Hope, nor ix\ any other Part of the Bay or 
Straits oiljudfom except on the north welt Side near Brook Cobham^i 
and my real Opinion is, that thofe Whiles came in at the weft End. 
of Wager River,.and that th^re is a great Probability of a Paflage from 
thence to the fouth weftward. 

Clerk's Anfn*ier'\ I never faw any black.Whales during our Voyage, 
from Churchill Kiver, but at Deer Sound and Brook Cobhaw, 
and imagine thofe we faw in Wager River came through Chan« 
nels on the weft Side of that River. 1 am likewife of Opinion,., 
that there is a weftern Ocean nigh Brook Cohham and Wager 
River; for that rapid Tide was met with in 63*' 20, 1 a« 
almoft certain, flows into Wager Rivjer, ^nd that it come*, 
from a bea different from, that which fills hud/hn's. Strait auck. 

Bay. . 

N % Qu< 

i^trf 5.} Whither they heliewe that the CdptainwoM |iav# tenf 
ihem up at that tinier if he had not heen alarmed ufdn.hearing that U 
nvas rumoured among his Men^ that the Dijcovery ^wai negleBed^ though 
from the Whales^ Depths and Breadth of the Strait, there lAiere Hopei 
#/" a Fajfage ; and ivhether there nvere not fome high Words upon it, 
49nd harjB Words ufed hy the Captain, that' he^<would cane fome, and 
broomftick and lafh others, ' i[ they reported any thing, or concerned 
ihemfel^es about the Sttccejs of the Voyage ?- 

Lieutenants Jn/werJ I imagine that I fho^ld never have been fcrit 
VLTp Wager River again, had it not been for fome Murmurs on board; 
but I know nothing of the Threatnings Captain Middleton is faid to 
liave made ufe of, I not being on board at that time, but was afcer- 
lyards informed thereof by the Doftor and Clerk. 

Mafler^s Anfnuer ] 1 fincerely believe no Man had the Difcoverjr 
more at heart than Capt. Middietouy nor was any one fo great a fuf- 
icrer as he, both in Perfon and Purfe. As to his Men, they were fo 
unlikely to fpread fuch Rumours, or to defire to encounfer any Dan- 
ger, that on the contrary, when the poor fcorbutick Creatures heard 
it was agreed en to return back from the Fr«2:f»Strait,they were over- 
joy 'd and ready to leap out of their Skins, as the Saying is. I never 
beard of the leaft Threatning during our being at Sea in any Part of 
the Voyage, about the Difcovery ; but the Captain always treated, 
every body tool nvell, if I may be allowed the Expreflion, infomuch,. 
that I often wondrcd at it i for he uftd to take more upon him in 
the Hud/on' S' Bay Service ; and I have heard him fay, that he could 
put up with all that could be endured rather than that the Difcovery 
•ihould be baulked. He never hindred any body from keeping what 
Account they would, and would always readily inftruft any Officer 
that would alk him, in obferving the Latitude, Variation, or any 
ether curious Matter, and ihewed feveral how to keep Journals that 
had never been at Sea before, and preferred them in the Voyage ac- 
cording to their Merit, tho' he never had feen them before, 

Surgeon's Afipwer'[ The firft Difcourfe that happened concerning tte 
Negleft of the Di covery , was by the Lieutenant and my fpeaking 
together in the Boat, when we went the fecond time to Deer Sound, 
•which was overheard by fome of the Boat's Crew, and told again to 
the Captain 5 which, in my Opinion, was the Occafion of his fend- 
ing up the River again i and he faid he would cane the Lieutenant, 
broomliick the Malier and whip all the reft that fpoke any thing 
about the Pafllige. This was Ipoke to Mr. Wygate and me, when 
the Lieutenant and Mafter was gone down the River. 

Clerk'*! AtrftwerJ] I think it very certain that the Lieutenant and 
LJafter would not have been.fent up the River again, had it not been 
rumoured in the Ship that the Difcovery was neglefted ; and t^at whea 
the Lieutenant was go:e up the Rivef, he fent for the Surgeon and 
" xnyfelfinto the Great Cabbin, where, with great Vehemence, "he 
*^ t;hreatncd to cane tiie Lieutenant, broomliiqk th^ Mafter, and 

• ' vhip 

** wlii^ all the reft that fhould concern tkemfehrerui relation to hi 
V Condua;'^ 

Query 6.] Whether^ luhen the Lieut euanf andMafier were carried 
put of the River by the Rafidtty eftbeTtde^ upon a Ung fiece of Ice, 
they <were not carried by the Ebb to the Jouth^tuejlward, tha 
Rockx round Cape Dobbs s and 'whether the Ebb did not run by tbeU 
Cape to the Jouthnuefinjoardf 

Lieutenants Anfvoer'X Yes, we were carried to the fonth-weftward 
nigh the Rocks on the ibuth Shore of Cape Dobbi, by die Tide of £bb» 
and drove from TFager River ^ or 7 Leagues. 

MaJlet*jAn/<wer'}When'wc were drove out of thcRiver/F4(^/r'«llotttk 
by the Rapidity of the Ebb Tide, upon a large Piece of Ice, we were 
carried S. £. b. S. as the Courfe of Land lies by Compafs from th|i 
Riveras Mouth, towards Cape Dobbs, until we met the Chan&ei £bb» 
from the W. b. S. by Codpifs. 

• Surgeon's Jn/wer'] The Lieutenant and Mailer can give the beffc 
Account of this Article. . - , . 

C/eri^s jinfuter] This the Lieutenant and Matter have often affirm- 
ed to be Truth ; tho' at this Time the Mafler prevaricates, ^r fear, 
as he fays, lie ftiOuld be the Ruin of any Man. 

Query 7.] Whether, ivhen the Ships Jailed out of the Ri^oer, they 
did not fly to the north eaft^wcud luith Sails and Oars^ to be out ef 
theivay of the Tide of flood from the Soi^tlyward upon its Return, left 
it Jkould force them again up the Rinjer ? 

Lieutenant's Anf<wer\ This Article the whole Ship's Company can 
prove as well asmyfclf ; for I affirm, tliat we ply'd with Sails and 
Oars to the eallward, to get out of a Tide of Flood (which I appre* 
hend and believe came from^the fouth-weflward} for fear of being 
iorfcd into ^i^^*^ River again. . 

Mafier^s Anfwer'] When we failed out of the River Wager, - we 
ply'd to the eaflward with Sails and Oars, to get out of the Indraft 
pf the River's Flood from the ^eaftward, ,but ntt from the fouthward, 
until you get within the Indraft of the River, and then indeed, tho 
Flood hath the Courfe as in all Inlets. 

Surgeon's Jnjtuer] This Article is fo well known by every one that 
was then aboard, that it is allowed by all, that we plyed to the nortfi- 
taftward with Sails, Ship's Oars, and two Boats a-head, to be out 
of the Tide of Flood from the fouthward, left it fhould drive us qp 
the River again, 

ClerA^s Anf^er."] Certainly. We haul'd away to the eaflward witk 
all the Sail we could croud, rowing with the Ship's Oars, and towing 
with the Boats, to avoid our being forced into, the River Wager again, 
by a. Tide of Flood that came from the fouth-weftward. 

Query 8. Whether the Captain did not order the Lieutenant on Shore 
at the Low Beach at half an Hour after t<wo, nuheft they nuere four 
Miles from the Shore, and at three made a Signal for him to return om 
hnnrds before he reached the Shores tr could fix the Current of the 
fide J 


• XfMr/#«a«/V AnfivirJ] Yes, it is Crur. 

Mafiir^s Jjt/kver.l The Captain, did order the Licatcnant #l 
fcore at the Low Beach, near the Point, at half an Hour after two, 
10 obferve k«w much the Tide had ebbed by the Shore ; but the ^hi|> 
foon after meedhg with much Ice, and we feeing no Land to the north* 
yvard in our Way, thought we fhould loofe time ; for "tis very dange- 
jTous to have the Boat from the Ship amongfl Ice ; as we well know 
in the Hudjon^s-Bay Voyages, where the ride is ftrong, and often 
•crufhes them^to pieces, putting the Men in danger of their Lives; and 
if fuch a Misfortune had happened to us, we could not have brought 
the Ship home, eight of the Men being gone. 

Surgt§n^s Anfnuer.'] I believe evqy Officer's Journal makes mentr* 
•n of this Article, and acknowledges it to be true and Matter of Fad. 

Clerk's AnfuJtr,1 This Artidf every Journal and Loj;bQok con- 
/cffes to be true. 

Query 9.] Whether the Neetp Tides nvere not higher at Churchill 
fwith a Mrthnjuefterly fVind, than the Spring Tides nxtere njuith an eaftt 
$rly Windr 

Liettteneinfs AnfwerJ] That is kiiown by every Pei;fon who ha» 
any Knowledge of the Tides in Churchill River, and is Fadl. 

Mafter's An/kuer.] The Neap Tides at Churchill, as 1 have heard, 
but had no Trial of it^ the River bei^g full of Ice, the moft part of 
the time we were there, ufcd to rife higher with a northerly Wii^d 
by fome Feet,, than a Spring Tide doth with a foutherly Wind, or 
fouth-eaft Wind. 

Surgeon's AnfiwerJ] This is well known to every one that ever ob« 
Served the Tides in Churchill KiwtT. 

Clerks An/wer,] Every Fcrfon who has been at Churchill Rivcr» 
knows that the north wefterly Winds make higher Tides there cwi 
the Neap, than eafterly Winds on the Spring. 

Query 10. Whether"] the Tide at the Paint near Brook Cohhzm ik 
4>l^ ao', nigh the Land, as they nuent north*ward from Churchill, ivas 
not as rapid as the Tide in the River Wager ; or nvhether at that time 
they could a/certain the Flood from the Ebb ^ andtxihetber hy falling off 
from the Land to the eafhuard, they did not lofe that Tide ? 

Lieutenant's AnpwerJ\ TheTide at the Point nezxBxookCohhamiXiS'^ 
tto', nigh the Land, was as rapid as that in Wager Riyer ; Bqt I think 
there was mo proper Method ufed to afcertain the Tide of Flood, or 
Ebb, no Perfon being fent on 6hore ; and the Courfeof theTidfc, 
which was very impetuous, being never tried but once at that Place. 

Mafters Anf*wer.'\ The Tide near the Headland, in Latitude 63® 
ao'N. as we went northwards irota Churchill, vfas iricd feveral 
times, and run two Miles an Hour from the eaftward. But Land- 
men on board, and Sailors alfo, if not well acquainted with Naviga* 
tion, may, in fuch Cafes where the Ship is under Sail, the Boat at 
Anchor, or the Current- Log riding her, be eafily led into very fabc 
Conclufions, In thi^ particular (Jaie, the Current ran two Miles ^n 
Hwir, and ihc Shin ^ycnt two or three Knots, flaiiting from the 


I MI ] 

Boat, wliich made It appear to fome not well reriM In the NattMi 
said Efiedts of Car rents, as if the Ship made double the way flie- 
tealjy did. 

As we went off the Land, we had lefs Tides, as we always expe»' 
jrience, in proportion as we depart {torn the CcaA. 

Surgeon's ^njhver,} 'the Rapidity of the Tide here filled feverala* 
board with Joy and Hopes of finding a Pafiage without going much 
farther to the northward ; but thefe Hopes were foon changed by the 
Captain*s falling off from the Land to theeaflward, and by that 
means loll the 1 ide. . 

Clerk's Af/wer.'\ I never faw more rapid Tides at any Place -that 
ii«ar Brook Cobbatftt in 6\^ 20', and am fure no Perfon did mako 
effedlual Trial for afcertaining the Knowledge of the Tide of Flood 
Irom the Tide of Ebb ; for the Current of the Tide there was tried 
but once, and that by Captain MUdletottt who dire^ly afterwards 
Jiawled away to the eaflward, and thereby loft the ftrongTide. 

Query 11.] Whether it did not appear by the Gunner* s and Carpen^ 
itr^s Account^ nvho ^ent farther than the Captain and Clerk by fwo or 
three Miles, tvhen they landed Jit Cape Frigid, that they luere upon an 
IJlandcut off from the Low B each y and that theFroucnS trait nvhich thef 
JaiVy ivas luhat furrounded that IJland, njohich njuas not ^abonje three 
Leagues nxiide^ and full of IJlands % and •whether they did net fee high 
Land beyond that Strait to the fofliAjard, and fo round to the Lowu Beaehi 
and whether they could Jee a Strait biyond that high Land, at leaft 15 
Leagues farther to the fouth eaft without a fele/cope $ and whether upon 
hss Return to the Boat at low IVatir^ he did not then take the Height of' 

Lieutenant^ s Anfwer,'] I refer this Article to the Gentlemen wh© 
ivere on Shore on that Part of the Land. 

Mafier's Anfwer^ The Captain flridlly enquired of the Carpenter 
«nd Gunner concerning the Frozen Strait, whether the Place they 
were landed upen was an Ifland or no. They anfwered it was not, 
for they could fee further from where thoy were than he ; and it was 
afterwards confirmed on board that there was noTide from out theSay^ < 
between the Mountains that made one Side of the Frozen Straits and 
the Low Beach. Whilft the Ship was working and driving to iby 
for the Boat*s coming 6n board, fhe was hawled alinofl into the Frozen 
Straits, upon the Ebb, and fet from it on the Flood, tho' the Wind 
Ucw right off it, fo that fhe was obliged to fee iSail and (land from it« . 
>vhen the Captain went away with the Boat, until we got fomedi- 
itance from its Indraft. I'he Captain took the Height of the Tide 
when he returned to th^ Boat. By the Account the Men gave hinx * 
when he got back, the Tide had flowed four Feet, andhe afterwards 
found by the Marks on Shore, that it flowed fifteen or fixteen Feet ia 
all ; and that a well or weft by fouth Moon made high Water. 

Surgeon's Anjwer,'] Thi| I refor tQ thf fc who were a-ihore at Capi 


««i » m 

dirts AnJ^ir] I fteefred the Boat a fhore (tlie Gunner and Car* 
jp^nter being two of the Boat's Crew.) Immediately after our land- 
ing we left the Boat, and went inland, without taking any notice of ^ 
tke Oiredlion of the Tide. We travelled feveral Miik from Moun- 
tain to Mountain till we came to a very high one on the S. £. Part 
of the Ifland (for I am very fure) from a Channel I faw, which dif- 
joined it fro^ the Low Beach, and another I faw to the northward 
ai well as from theGunnefs and Carpenter's Account, that the Land- 
tve thep Aood upon was an I^and waihed on ali^Sides by the Sea the 
Shij^s wert in. The Gunner and Carpenter, as well as the Cap- • 
tain and myfelf» faw very high Land beyond that Strait to the eait- 
ward ; and I think it impoffible to difcover a Strait over that high 
Land, with any Inftrument we had then on Shore ; for we had nothing 
but the common Profpe^ Glafs, and that not ufed. The Captain 
and myfelf returned to the Boat, fending the Gunner and Carpenter 
to overlook the Channel on the eaft Side of the IHand. Whtn w«- 
came to the Boat, it was near low Water ; and the Captain alk'd 
which way the Tide of Flood ran, and was told; it made its Courfe to 
the northward. About 7 Q*Clockthat Evening he took the Height 
©♦ the Tide, it! being at that time low Water, and three Days aker 
the Full of the Moon. The Lieutenant likewife obferved, that the . 
tShips in lying to, about lo o* Clock the fame Morning, were forced 
to the north caihvard very rapidly, which muft be by a Flood 

Query 1 2] Whether ttpon their Return from Cape Frigid to Brook 
Cobham, they ivere ^within fuch a Difiance of the *iveji Land, as to 
^efcry the Bottom of the Bass or Inlets^ fo as to knonv it to be a main • 
band\ ^whether it *was not for the moft part hazy Weather ^ fo as only 
to defcry the Tops of the Mountains and Headlands i and ^whether they 
did not fafs great part in the Night, or miere e'ven nearer the Coajl 
than fi*ue or fix Leagues^ until they came near Br6ok Q6^\i2Xa, 'whcri' 
ibeyfaw many Whales .^ * ' 

Lieutenant'' s Anfueer'] I acknowledge that I could never properly 
diftinguiih the Headlands in our Return from Cape frigid to fcrook • 
CMam^ knd' did not come nearer to the wed Shore than five or fix* 
Leagues : fomc part of the time was hazy Weather ; fome part 
Nlgjht^; and fome part very fine clear Weather. We fearched neither 
Inlets nor Bays, nor came' near enough any > Land to the wefhvard to. 
diftingtiiih it, till we came to Brook Cobham, where we fa\v feveral 

' Maftif^s jtnfwer'} We made fure to -fearch all the wcH Shore, fo 
near as to fee all the Bottom of theBays,and plainly make it main Land. 
We had very little hazy Weather; except in the Night time, and' 
then we lay to, or work*d to Windward, to hold our own till Day- 
light, that we might mifs no Place that appeared' like Openings or 
Inlets. We were within three or four Leagues ^f moft Places, and 
Wbcrcit was boldi wc cafiie wittua (wo L^iisi offtibie Headland/ 
J'* whew 


IVhe'it we found tlie Tide to run two Milei aft HdcUr xti 63^ z6\ an^ 
from 64^ to Brook Cobham, we were Aire of the main 

Surgeon's Anf'wer\ Afitr we left Cape Frigid^ I do not rememW 
we ever were nearer the weft Shore ;^an fitre or fix Leagues, (b could 
hot difcover whether it was Iflandsand broken Land, Inlets, or fiays^ 
or a main Continent, and feldom difcemed the Land, except fonni 
high BlujFor Point amongft the Clouds^ it being fomewhat thick 
and haz)r Weather ; ib never touched at any Land till We came t^ 
Brook Cobham^ where we faw feveral black Whales. We pafied by 
the Pointof this Ifland, and dropt Anchor on the weft Side oiMarm 
iie Ifland, to the weftWard of Brook Cohbam, 

Cleric s Anpwer] It appears from the difterent Journals and Log* 
Books, that we weft not neater tothat Land than five or fix Leagues^ 
and that moft part- of th^ time it was hasy Weather^ and paft by a 
gtiKat Part in the Night, until > we ^ame to Brook Cdbfoum^ 9xA there 
jf(re faw feveral Whates. 

Query 13] Whether the Captain everdnctjenf his Boat tn Shiri 
to try the Ttdes, or Jearchfor hny Inlet upon, that Coafi^ until he njufO^ 
teredat Msirble I/!akd^ upon his Return /& England, where ihe Mafier 
difcover edn Tide f nsihich jfoHu tif^es ro/e fwenty-twp Feet ^ andififhethetr 
nvhen he defired again to go on Shore to make further Ob/er*vat4ons, the ^ 

aptain did not preveitt hint, and refufe him Liberty ; and whether^ 
during the luhole Voyage fhom ChurchUl until their Return^ thty hadnof 
good Weather tO^ake a thorough Difco*very? ., 

Lieutenant^ s Anf'wer'] Wc had very good 'Weather ; the Maftetr 
inuft anfwer the reft ; there was 00 Boat ient on Shore to try thi 
Tide from Cape /r/pV to Brook Ctf!l^i&fl«. .. _ 

Mafter's Anfiwer} TheRcafon the Boat was not fent oil Shore to 4 
t)-y the Tide, was, that when fhe was mann*d, we cqxM not fin4 
^ien to work the Ship, or reef a Sail, or hand One; we could try the 
Tide by a Current- Log, which the C^tain has ufed for manyYears^ 
as well, if notbetceronboard, or in a Boat, than nearer the Shore in 
almoft ill' Weathers. As We had got the Time of high Water at tht 
Frtf«/»* Straits and Wdger Riveras Mouth, wc were very fecure» 
ivhicR was die Ebb and Flood 1 and if we got the Slacki it was fum% 
fcierit {at dcteniiining the Tides. The reft of the Way, both myfelf 
and ther li^tenant h^ Orders to obferve the Tidesj; at Brook c^^4 
hoM^ andeifcwhere ; and that very Hour when we could do it with«4 
Cut Lofs of Time by the aforefaid Current- Log. 

I can^t recoUedl, that the Cnptairi ever hindredmy going a-ihore 
upon any fuch Account, or did I defire of him to go aihore. ^W#got 
what W^^er we wanted at Brook Cobhamy and made what Obfervati* 
ons were neceifary there. We faw the main Land within us, and how 
much the Tide had flowed at the higheft, by Marks ieft on the Shore* 
The Ship lay in a dangerous Roadtteed, if the Wind came on ths^ 
Short or thick Weather^ fo thatjhe Bpat oouk}* not And the Ship. 
Wc'durft not let go one of our Bower Anchors, having but two ieft ; 

O .and 

[ 'i4 'J 

imd dtt Metif when our Boat was from the Ship, could not get it ajv 
^gain. if It had Mown foas t^make a Sea ; for they erew worfe every 
day, and we had not above fix in both Watches, beimes three or four 
'Officers, that could go tip to htoid 6r reef. It Was a Mercy we got 
our two Ships home again, as we had HuJjen's Straits to p&fs where 
our Rigging and Sails freeze in Jum and July ; fo that when our 
Men are in the bed Health, we have much a-do to keep them upon 
Deck in their Watch. The Weather was extraordinary gpod all the 
time we lay in Wither River, and in our Paflage home alfoi elfe God 
Icnows what we fhould have done. 

burgeon's 'Anfwer] There was never any Boat fent a-fhore^ nor no 
Search made near the weft Land, from our leaving Cape frigid^ till 
we came to M«f%le Ifland, and I do not know any Reafon why wt 
did not ; for out of fifty-three Men and fioys, we brought out from 
Churchill^ we had but eight that were uncapable of doing their Duty» 
fts lalttl very well affurcd Jrom my fick Book» io never wanted a 
Boat's Crew upon any Emergency ; and when the Mailer. gave an 
^Account of the Tide at Marbh Ifland rifing twenty^two Feet, an<l 
was defirous of going a-fhore again, to be more fully fatislied, the 
Captain told him, he fliould be damn*d before he went alhore again, 
till he otmeto England. Wehad finepleafant, dear, and moderate 
Weather almoft the whole Voyage. 

C/erk's Anfiwer'} No not once ; and I heard him tell the Matter, 
that he fhould not go a-fhore again till he came to England^ after he 
had been on Marble Jfland. We had very fine Weather the major 
yart of our Voyage from Churchill^ till our Return for England. 

Query 14. Whether thisNegie^ nuas not after ow^ining in Council y 
that they had found rapid Tides^ broken Lands and IJlands, upon that 
Coafi, as lhe^failed-northnA:ards from QhurchiU, but bad no Op for tuni- 
$y of knvwinz, frcm luhence the tides came It 

Lieutenant* s j4n/w^r'] Yes, it is true. 

Mafter'^s Anjwer'] I never heard of any Ncglcdl, nor could any be 
charged on the Captain, tho' he was in a bad State of Health for ma- 
V.y Months, and all the Winter, yet he kept the Deck mo»p than 
any Officer in the Ship. The Tide we found in 63** 20* infhore, was 
not half fo flrong as what we found in the New Strait, botween th^ 
"River Wager and Cape Hope in the Narroiws. I tried feveral Timet 
inyfelf when almoO: calm, and it broke our deep Sea-line, in bringbg 
«p our fmall Boat, and loft our Grapling. 

furgeon^s Anpwer^ As to this Article, the Council held will tellify, 
which ^was ftgned by the Captain, Lieutenant, Mr. Moor, and Mr. 

Cleric s Anfwer'} The whole Council owned, they had feen rapid 
Tides, broken Lands and Iflands on the weft Side of the i^elcome, 
as they failed northwards from Churchill, but had not Opportunity of 
trying from whence the Flood came, yet n^Icded to. try the Tidet» 
kfc. m our Return from Cape Frigid xowtti^ &€0(ikCoUam» 


' Qoery 15 J mfether there <were any Sign of the Efkimaux .IndfeQ^ 
halving ever been at Cape Frigid, and tvhetber tbeyfiad not Marh of 
their being emery nvhere above Savage iiound to the Weftnjuardi^ in Wager 
J^iver i and f nee they have all their Necejfaries from the Whales they 
hilly ij any ifumber had pajfed a Strait near Cape Frigid, whether if^ 
fo narronv a Strait it had been a better Place for tho/e Indies to have 
killed Whales y than ;» Wager Rive^y in cafe they came in from thence^ 
i^nd not from the luefivjard. 

Lieutenant^ s Anfvjer} I was not a-jfhorc at Cape Frigidi therefore 
mull refer this Article to he aflfwcrcd by thofc who were alhore at 
that Place. - 

Mafter^s AnPwer] I was not on fhorc on Cape Frigid, to fee the 
Signs of any of the Savages. There can be no Whales killed at the 
Frozen S>tWiits which is always froze ov«r, ormuch ice a driving in 
theTideVway. "^ 

Surgeon* s Anj-wer"} Thofe that weiw a Ihore at Cape Frigid caa 
give the beft Account of this Article. 

clerk* s Anfiwer'] I could perceive no Signs of 'the .^i«wMiA?J5sr<///»»r 
having ever been on Cape Frigid^ tho* -i looked very narrowly for 
them, but'hayefeeathe Marks of -their Reiidence on every Part of 
the Coaft of the ^xverWager I was at, and do imagine, if theWhaler 
of the Whalebone kind, had come thro* that narrow Strait near 
Cape Frigid^ yc fhould certainly have feen the Marks of thofe In*' 
dians having been there, as the Whales are their chief Support, and 
of great ufe to them, in compleating their Canoes^ Weapons o£.; 
War, Hunting, Filhing, fe'f. 

Query 16] Wh,ether the Lieutenant did notprefitheCapttun^tolet': 
him take a Man from Churchill FaSory, nuho under Hood perfeShf tht 
northern Indian hanguage, and thai hi vjould Hike the Blame upon him^^ . 
Jelf in cafe any Complaint Jkould be madr upon his Return, fince it - 
nvould be of fo great Strvice to^ promoU the Difiovery i but the Cefiaist 
mtould not allovf it? 

Lieutenants Anfv)ery^\a%. Article is Matter of Fadl, as I have: 
often times declared it t» be fo, as others cka teftify as well tx 
inyfelf. ' 

Mailer's Anfvier] I da not remember, that the LieutenanI did pt^ 
the Captain to take^mother-Man ; but if he did fo,: in my Opinion,^ . 
the Captain did much better in getting two northern /W/ilMKf,. that 
pretended to know the Country, and fpeajc. the Lacigttag|B» of feverat 
Nations; and'alfo a ^ird /W/«« from .-the Fadlory,. whocoulc^:. 
converfe with thefb^ twa northern Indians, he havii^g travelled wkk. 
them fevef^. Winters before, and underftood Englijk befides^' 

Surgeon* s AnfwerX This whole Article is Truth, it being firft fpoke^^ 
if! my hearing, and oftea repeated iince by the Lieutenant. , 

Cleric s Aft/werl This Article is true^ for I very well remember: 
the Lieutenant's Xnciu^tipQu to igiprtft huii* and^* the CaptainV 
|^rbi4^B£ hiu^ 

Q ^r Quel f 

Quay 17] Whether^ from tbi rapid Tides tnat. truk Cobbtsu 
fndfrom the Number tfVff bales fetn tbere^ tbey did not aftrebend ibera 
migbt alfo bave been a Pajfage tbereabouts^ and nvbether hy tbe heft Jc* 
counts they could get from tbe Indians, by tbe Interpreter tbey bad, tbey 
d^dnot intimate tbai the Strait and Copper Mine tbey had been at^^bert 
they fofw a great many large black Fijh^ luasfome'where thereabouts, be- 
fore tbey fdtin <witb the Ice, and whether tbe detain did not threaten thei 
Surgeon, upon Account of bis being Co intimate and corre/ponding nuith the^ 
In^ans, and for bis attempting to come at the Knowledge of that $ frail 
and Pajfage from them ? ' : 

Lieutenant^ Anfiverl I hivcgivcn my Opinion of the Rapidity of 
the Tides near Brook Cobham. beiore, but I khow nothing of the 
jiorthern Indian Language, and therefpre beg Leave tQ refer theiif 
Lordfhips ^q the SargepQ and Qerk^s Accounts. 

Majiirs Anfwer'] As to the rapid Tides near Brook Cobbam, thcjr 
^U came from the Eaftward^ the Courfe of t^e Welcome, As, to Whales 
^tis only a Conjcdturc from whence they come. We had no Mannei; 
-of Account from the Indians of any PaHage on the Coaft where wo. 
vent, neither did I fo much as hear one Word mentioned about it, ei- 
tlicr whilft they were with us, or, fmce till now, nor concerning black; 
Fi(h near the Copper K^ine ; I never heard that the Captain had any 
Words in Anger with the Surgeon on any fuch. Account, during the 
Voyage, but on the contrary, he ufed him too well, by paffing by 
^nany of his Infole^dcs tp himfelfan4 others. 

Surgeon's Jn/wer}. The Reafons here fet down were obvious and 
plain to every one that had any real Senfe or Knowledge of what we 
were about, ;^nd was the' Occaficm chiefly of the Murmur in Wager 
Hiver : for that River, together with what Occurrences we met with 
there, ferved only to confirm us in our Opinion of what we had feen, 
and been well informed of li)efore, particuliarly, frpm one Richard 
Lo*vegro*ve, now at Churchill, and had been in the Sloop as far as 
Whale Co^e, and travelled in Land, he gave us an Account that there: 
was nothing but Iflands and broken Laddb there, and that he could fee 
a clear Sea &cii\ the Top of the Hills to, the Sottth-wefl, and a rapid 
Tide runaniongft the 1 (lands there, likewiie the two Indians gave 49 
an Account of a River or Straits, Salt water and deep, a great Num. 
ber of large bla^k Fiih, fpouting up the Water, and that they were 
ftve l>Sys in crofllng it, and , that there was a Copper Mine on the 
,. Side of this River or Strait^ and by the beft Accounts I could gather 
: li om them, it was f^omewhere hereabouts ; and when we left Brook 
Cobham,^2xA failed to the North eaftward, they toldus^ that that was 
not the Way to the Copper Mine, but were going from it. ' 1 have 
* »ow by ^c a fliorr Vocabulary of fome Part of the northern Indian 
Language, which I penned down from them, they being; dcfirou^ of 
teaching me, and alfo of learning BngUfii, and were perfect of feveral 
- "Words 5 but tk^s Fropeeding did not %&. long, for the Captain threat- 
ened tocut my Ears off; and teke away my Books and Papers, if cyer 
\ had any further Ccrr^fpondf nee with tho^ two ^^ortuijfate Indians. 


Chrk^i Anftjfer] From the rapid Tides at Brook bMam fa 6 j* 
%o\ and frcun the Number of Whales ieen there, I apprehend there 
is a Weilerii Ocean not far from that Place, but defire their Lo]i>ihipii 
would refer themfelves to the Account.given by the Surgeon concern- 
ing the Indiau'% Report of the Copper NtTne. 

Query i8] IVhttber the t*wo northern \n6x9m were not iefirmu ef 
toming to England, and were not^ contrary to their Incbnatumr^ fut on 
Shore on anlfland in t^^yjome Leagueifrom the Main^ in an huGfi^ 
rent Bbat^ *which they could not rightly manage ^ their Enemies heittg nf» 
9n the Coaft^ and they far from their own Country ? 

Lieutenant'' s Anfwer\ I believe they were defirous of comhig to Eng* 
iandf but know not upon what Account they Were fet afhore. 

Mafler^s Anjwer\ One of the northern Indians feemed iit theSr gd- 
ingaway from us to be fomewhat dejedled, but the Captain told us, 
that he had premifed both theGovernor and their Friends^to put them 
iafe on Shore, fo that they might get to their own Home, or to Qbnr^ 
chilly loaded with Goods that they liked \ that h^ had no Orders from 
(he Admiralty to bring them Home; and as they were at Brook 
Cohhamia 63^ Latitude, about 2 or ) Leagues from the main I^nd» 
and feveral Imall Iflands between that and the Main, and in fine Wea« 
ther, and Water as fmooth as thd Thames^ the Boat was very well, 
and they might eafily manage her, as they had been ihewn, what Di- 
glance they had to fhore, or along fiiore,as they pleafed. 'thxsj Itoff^ 
their Way Home very well, as they told us, and were fufllcientiy fed'* 
tified againft all the Men in the Country, having Fire-arms w(31 
i^ocked with Ammunition, and more of every Thing than they cotiSd 
well carry. They were but r^% Miles from their own Oodntiy, or 
the Company's Fa&ory, which is nothing for an Indian to trave). 

Surgeon's Ju/wer] Thefe two Indians left their Wires and Families« 
and camion board entirely tolhow us the Copper Mine before men- 
tioned ; but after we left firook Cohham in going ouf, we perfnadti 
them to go to England^ with Promifes of large Prefents and jGratuitiea 
when they arrived there* They readily confented to it, up6n Condi- 
tion they ihould return to their own Country again the ilext Year. 
After this Agreement made, the Captain altered his Opinion, arid 
faid he would put them on afhore again ; but defired that neither the 
Linguift nor I would tell themt for fear of giving them Uneafiiidt!, 
and caufingMurmuringintheShip,they being well liked by every oiie, 
ginning to be very handy on Deck. This was never difcovered to 
them ; till we came to Marble IJlandi and then the Cdptain orderM 
them into an olci leaky Boat, with two Oars, a Maft and Sails, whitl^ 
. neither of them knew how to manage, firfl giving each of them a 
Gun, Powder, Shot, Hatx:hets, Ice*Chi^s, Knives, Awls, Beads, 
Rings, l^c, one dF them called ^«)Ctf«A^ied very much, and conti* 
nually expreifed the Danger they fhoji^ be expofed to, being hx 
from their own Families^ Winter approa^ing^, in a (Irange Place they 
• i^d not knp>Vr ami in the midft of thqir nu)rtal Enemies^ the Efii* 
m^Hx, whft woaI4 firft fcalp thm^ and Chen devour them, but all ihh 


would not piTvail upon the Captain ; for they were aAually forced o« 
ver the Ship* Side into the Boat, and towed a&ore upon Marble Ifland^ 
in the Latitude 53^, and there left. 

. CUrKs AnftMir\ They were defirous of coming to Englandy and 
with aching Hearts, poor Creatures, were put on ihore* of whi^b 
■ Mr, Tbompfon has given a particular Account. The Reafon Captain 
tdiddleton gave for putting them on fhore was, as he faid, left thofe 
Indians t* when they came to England, fhould, by their chattering of 
the Copper Mine, and ftrait thereabouts, put the Government to the 
lExpence of fitting Ships out again, to make Trial of a Paflage that 
Way once more. 

Query 19] Whether the Lieut enant^ SurgeM and Clerk did not beatt 
the Captain Ja^ at Churchill to the Governor andOjgicers of the Hudfon^s 
Bay Company^ that hejhould he able to make that Voyage^ and no Man 
•nboardbimjbould know ^whether there <was a Faffage or not, and thai 
he *would be a better Friend to the Company than ever P 
Lieutenant'' s Aufwer"] Yes, it is true. 

Mafter^s Jn/wer] What pailed between the Captain and the Hud- 
fin*! Bay Company^s Officers about the Difcovery, I know nothing 
of; but if th# Captsun faid any Thing of this Nature, I (hbuld take 
his Meaning to be, that there could not beany on board, but the Lieu- 
tenant and my (elf, able to, judge or know where they were, without 
being told, we were fo well officered and manned ; it*s impofiible for 
. either Land or Seamen,that are not throughly acquainted with Naviga- 
tion, both in Theory an^ Pra£tice,moreefpecialiy in thofe Parts of the 
unknown World, ^ much as to guefs whereabouts they are. 

As for being a Friend to the Hnd/on's Bay Company, if he faid {o, 
I (hould not doubt that it was on account of hit being in a Ship of War, 
and had his Inftrudtions to give them and their Trade Protection. 

Surgeon's jin/wer] Yes, ieveral Times, not only aboard, when the 
Governor of the HudJonU Bay Company and his Officers were prefent, 
but in the Faftory, in the publick Guard Room. 

Clerk^s Jn/hver'} I heard him repeat thofq Words more than once. 
Query 20] Whether his Condu^ was not /uitable to that Dularati' 
$n afterwards upon the Difcoven, by difcouraging and di/countenancing 
itvery one on board from being inquifiti've about it^or making anyOhferva--*^ 
tions *whieh promoted the Difcovery ; threatning to take their Booh and 
Paperf from them, and being very careful that nothing fiould be entered 
into the Logg Book, which Jbould give any Hopes of a P^JJage, but bart^ 
iy the common Occurrences on board the Ship, ivhich related ta the/ailing 
if the Ship and Winds, Soundings, Sec. 

Lieutenant's Jnjwer} I believe it was fo, and that fome of the Of- 
ficers on board were difcouraged and difcountenanced from being in* 
quifitive about it, or making any Oblervatjons which might promote 
the intended Difcovery. But I can't fay that the Captain difcouragtd!; 
. or difcountenanced me in making any Difcovery, tho'fome of the Of- 
ficers of the Ship arc of another Opinion ;. nor did I ever hear the 
Qiptain, threaten to take their Book& and Papers, from, them, or give 


Orders that noting (houl<}^ be entered in the Logg Book which fliouM 
give any Hopes of a Paflage. 

■ Majter's Anfiwer] The Captain, as I have obferved before, feeitaicf 
onallOccaiions heartily to encourage theDifcovery^and was ever free in 
communicating and inilruiiing every OfHcer and Man on board that 
waold any Time defire it of him, either inNavigation or thie Seaman's 
Pan, as none is better qualified to do it, and the Lieutenant, ai well at 
myfelfyhave experienced the Benefit thereof,|and mufl own it. He al* 
%vay s orderM me and my Mate to take Care to omit nothing that might 
be of Service either for the prefent or future Good and Advantage of 
others ; and to reprefent him in any other Light, I atti thorough^ tz* 
tisfied, is doing him barbarous Iiyuflice. 

Surgeon's Anfwer] This 1 think is already made evident by moft ol 
the aforegoing Articles ; and the whole Difcovery was aniwerable,and 
of one Piece with that notable Expreifion of Captain MiddUtott% whes 
we were at ChurchUL 

Clerk's Anf'wer'] I have the greatefl Reafon to believe his Conduft 
was fuitable to the aforementioned Declaration, not only by his dif- 
countenandne and difcouraging every one on board by threatening 
"Words, but by his Sailing continually to the North caft wards, there- 
by lofmg the ftrong Tides ; making an imaginary frozen Strait in his 
Draughts i wilfully miftaking the Flood near Cape Frigid for theTids 
of Ebb, as I have before mentioned in i^nfwer to Query 1 1, on Pur- 
pofe to bring the Flood 1 ide from the Mlantick Ocean ; from his 
Kegleft of trying the Tides, or fearching any Jnlets or Bays on the 
wcftern Side of rlxe IFekome, and from his abfolute Manner of mark- 
ii;g v.'hat te thought rtioll conduciv* lo his Defign, on the Lcgg Board. 


t »^o 3 

■ • * ' 

Captain Middleton's 



Extraordinary Degrees and Surprizing Effeds of 
COLD in Hud fan i^ Bay ^ North America^ read 
before the Royal Society^ . Oil. x8. 1741. * 

IObfenred* that the Hares ^ Rahhets^ Foxes ^ and Partridges^ In 
September^ and the Beginning of O^ober^ changed their native Co* 
Joor to a fnowy White ; and that for fix Months, in the feyereft.Part 
of the Winter, I never favv any but what were all white, except fome 
Foxes of a di&rent Sortj which were grizzled, and fome half red^ 
lialf white. 

That Lakes and ftanding Waters, which are not above lO or 12 
Feet deep, are frozen to the Ground in Winter, and the Fiflies there- 
in all perifh. 

Yet in Rivers near the Sea, and Lakes of a greater Depth thah i o 
or 1 1 Feet, Fiihes-are caught all the Winter, by cutting Holes through 
the Ice down to the Water, and therein putting Lines and Hook$. 
But if they are to be taken With Nets, they cut feveral Holes in a 
ftrait Line the Length of the Net, and pafs the Net, with a Stick fafi- 
ened to the Head-line, from Hole to H6le, till it reaches the utmolt 
Extent; and what Fiihes come to thefe Holes for Air, are thereby en- 
tangled in the Net ; and thefe Fiih, as foon as brought into the open 
Air, are inilantanebufly frozen as Hiff'as Stock^ih. The Seamen like • 
wife frefhen their fait Frovifions, by cutting a large Hole through thtf 
loe in the Stream or Tide^of the River, which they do at the Segin- 
oingofthe Winter, and keep it open all tliatSeafon. Jn thi4HoIe 
they put their fait Meat, and the Minute it is immerfed under Water, 
it becomes pliable and foft, though before its immerfion it was hard 

Beef. Pork^ Mutton^ and Vtntfon^ that are killed at the Beginning 
of the Winter> are prderved by the Froit, for fix or feven Months, 


t »«I I 

fetireiy fireelrdmPatrefiifBoa* and prove totenible good Eatbg. Liki» 
m^ Giifift FMr$ridgesy and other Fowl» that are killed at Um fiuno 
Time, and kept widi their Feathers on, and Guts in, require no 
other Prefervative bat the Froil to make them good wholdbme Eating, 
as long as the Winter contxnaes. All kinds of Fiih are prdinryed ia 
the like Manner. 

In large Lakes and Rivers, the Ice Is fomelimes broken bjr impri- 
ibned Vapours; and the Rocks, Trees, Joifts aiui Rafters of oitr 
Buildings,' ^are barft with a Noifr not Ic6 terrible than the firing off a 
great many Gans together. The Rocks which are fplit by the Froll^ 
are heaved up in great Heaps, leaving large Cavities behind ; whick 
I take to he oaufea by imprifoned watery Vapours, that require more 
Room, when frozen, than they occupy in their Huid State. Neither do 
I think it unaccoun^le, that the Froft fhould be able to tear upRocks 
ai^ Trees, and fplit the Beams of our Monies, when I coniider the 
great Force and Ehflidty thereof. If Beer or Water is left in Mugi^ 
Cans, Bottles, nay in Copper-pots^ though :they were put by our 
9ed-ii(fes, in a ievere Night, they are fnrely fplit to Pieces befon 
Morning, not being able to withftand the empanfive Force of the in. . 
dofed Ice. 

The Air is filled with innumerable Pardcled of Ice, very iharp and 
angular, and plainly preceptible to the naked Eye. 1 have ficverai 
times this Winter tried to make Obfervations of ibme celeHial Bodies^ 
particularly the Emerfions of the Satellites of Jufittr^ with refleft. 
mg and refra6ling Telefcopes % but the Metals and GlsUTes, by that 
Time I could fix them to theObjeA, ,were covered a quarter of a% 
Inch thick with Ice, and thereby the Objed rendered indiAin£^ fi» 
that it is not without great Difficidties that any Obfervations can be 

Bottles di Jhong Bury Brandf, ftr^ni Bri/ii, Spirits cfWiue^ fct 
out in the open Air for three or four Hours, freeze to (olid Ice. I 
have tried to get the Sun^s Refraction hereto every D^ree above the 
Horiaon, widi ir/f9»*s Quadrant, but to no purpofe, for the Spirit! 
froze almoft as foon as brought into the opcn^ Air. 
' The Froft is never out of the Ground, how deep we cannot be 
certain. We have dug down lo or 12 Feet, and mmd theEartk 
hard frozen in the two Summer Months ; and what Mmfture we find 
f ve or fix Feet down, is white like Ice. 

The Waters or Rivers near the Sea, wh^e the Current of 4te 
Tide flows ftrong, do not freeze about 9 or 10 Feet deep* ' 

All the Water we ufefi^r Cooking, Brewing, &r. is melted Snov^ 
and Ice ; no Spring is yet fourd ft'ee ^om freezing, thouglvdagnevee 
fo di»ep down. All Waters inland are frozen&ft by the Beginning^ifi 
Ofhhery and continue fo till the Middle of Jl/oy, 

The Walls of the Houfe we live in are of Stone, two Feet diick^^^ 
the Windows very fmall, with thick wooden Shutters, which are 
clofe (hut iS Hours victy DsLy in the Winter. Theit are Cellars van 
dor the Houfe, wherein we put our ^/^^^ Brtm^, - Jlrm^ Bf^ri 

F Butttf 



■ if 


Bdltir^ Chii/e, See. Four larg^ Fires are made m great Stores, btult 
6n purpdfe, every Day : As foon as the Wood is burnt down to a 
Coal/ the Tops ofnhe Chimneys are dofe flopped with lan Iron Co- 
ver i This keeps the Heat within the Houfe (though at the fame time 
the Smoke makes x)ur Heads ake. and is very omniive and un whole- 
feme) ; notwithftanding which^ in four or Hve Hours after the Firo 
is out, the Infide of the Wsdls of our Houfe and Bed places will be 
two or three Inches thick with Ice» which is ev^ Morning cut awajr , 
with a Hatchet. Three or four Times a Day we make Iron Shot of 
34 Pounds Weight red-hot, and hang them up in the Windows of our 
Apartments. I have a good Fire in my Room the major part of thi 
14 Hours; yet all this will not preferve my Bar, IVine^ Ink^ &c. 
£rom freezing. 

For our Winter Drefs we make ufc of three Fair of Socks of coarft 
Sknketting or Duflield for the Feet, with a Pair of Deer-Jkin Shoes 
0ver them; two Pair of ilixdx,. EngHjh Stockings, and a Pair of Cloth 
Stockings upon them ; Breeches lined with Flannel ; two or thre^ 
'£ngiijh Jackets, and a Fur or Leather Gown over them ; a large Bea"- 
ver Cap, double, to come over the Face and Shoulders, and a Cloth 
of Blanketting under the Chin ; with Yarn Gloves; and a large Fair 
of Beaver Mittings hanging down from the Shoulders before, to put 
our Hands in, which reach up as high as our Elbows ; yet notwith* 
standing this warm Cleathing, almelt every Day, fome of the Men 
that Air abroad, if any Wind blows from the northward, are dread- 
fully fl-ozen ; fome have their Arms, Hands, and Face blifler*d and 
frozen in a terriUe Manner, -the ^kin coming off foon after they enter 
a warm Houfe, and fonie have loft their Toes.^ Now their lying m 
for the Cureof thefe frozen Farts, brings Qn the Scurvy in ii lamenta- 
ble Manner. Many have died of it, and few are free from that 
Diflemper. I have procured them all thf lielps I could, from the 
X)ie£ this Country affords in Winter, fuch as frcih Fi(h, Partridges, 
;Bxt>th», isHc. and the Dolors have ufed their ucmoft Skill in vain i 
liar I £nd nothing will prevent that Diftemper from being mortal, but 
" Exercife and ftirring abroad. 
' * OfTtnir and ParMia, commonly called Ha/d*s, and Mock-Suns^ 
appear fiie^^uently about the Sun and Moon here. 1 hey are feen once 
or twice:a Wedc about jthe $un,and once or twice a Month about the 
Moon, for four or five Months in the Winter^ fevc^ Cm/ut sf dif- 
ferent Dianeters appearihg at the fame Time. 

I have feen five or fi}ii paralld C^r^n^ concentric with the Sun feveral 
Times inUie Winter,. being for the moft part very bright^ and always 
attended with ParMia or MocA Sum, Thitparbeiia are always ac- 
companied with Coronm, if the Weather is clears and continue for 
feveral Days to^etherj from the Sun*s Rifing to his Setting. Thefe 
Kings are 6i various Colours, a^id about 40 or 50 Degrees in i>iameter.^,. 
: The frequent Appearance of thefe Phttnomma in this frozen^ Glimc^ • ^ 
feems to confirm Defcfrtes"* Hypothefis^ wh« fuppofes (hem to jpro^ 
feed fren Ice fufpended in the Air* 


V:a jlurdfmB§fialfih muchoftner feen here than inEf^lattJ;iel8om^ 
9. Night paflfes in the- Winter fifte from their Appearance. They - 
Ihinewith a furprizing Brightnefs,. extinguifliing all the Stars and,-" 
Planets, and covering the whole HMiiiphere : Their tremulous Mo- - 
tion from all Parts, their Beauty and Ludre, are much the fame at 
in the northern F^rts of Seotlofid, Denmark, &c. 

Thib dreadful long Winters here may be almoft compared to the 
Pola/Parts, where the Abfenceof the Sun continues for fix Months ; 
tWAir being jscrpetually chilled and frozen by the northerlf Winds 
M Winter, smd the cold F<%s aVid Mills obftrudiing the Sun*s Beams 
in the {hort>6tinmcr we have here ; '^r notwithftanding the Snow and-» 
Ix:e is then diflblved in the Low-*]ands i&id Plains, yet the Mountain;} . 
^re perpetually covered with Snow, and incredible lar|e Bodies oilce^ 
contmuein the adjacent Seas. If the Wind blows from the fouthern 
Parts, the Air is toleraUy warm, but infuiierably cOld*wh^ it comes 
from the notthward, and it feldom blows otherwife thaii^ between the 
i^orth eift and the north-weft, except in the two Summer Months^ 
when we have, for the major Part, light Gales, between the eaft and^ 
the north, ^nd Calms. 

The northerly Winds being fa extre;ncly cold, is owing to the. 
Neighbourhood of high Mountains,^ whpie Tops are, perpetually co- 
v,ered with Snow,- which exceedingly chill§ the /iir pafiing over them. 
The Fogs and Mills that are brought here from the Polar Parts, in- 
Winter, appear vifible to the nakoi £ye in Icicles innumerable, as 
fmall as fine Hairs or Threads, and pomted as iharp as Needles. Thefe 
Icicks lodge in our Cloaths, and if our F^ees, or Hands^be unf»vered,p 
they prefentiy raife BliflcFsas wliite as Linhen Cloth, and as hard asi 
Horn. Yet if we immediately turn our Backs to the Weather, and 
^n bear our Handout of our Mitten, and with it rub the bliflered 
Part for a fmall Time, we fometimes bring the Skin tait» fomier- 
State ; If not, we make the beft our Way to a Fire, and get warm . 
Water, wherewith- w%bathe it, and thereby diflipate the Humours . 
raifed by the frozen Air i otherwife the Skin- would be off in a ihort 
Time, with much hot, icrous, watry Matter coming frooi -under 
ftlong with the Skin ; and this happens to fome almolt every Time 
they go abroad for five or fix Months in the Winter,, fo extreme cold^ 
if the Air wjien the Wind blows any thing %ong. 

Now I have oblervcd, that when it hSis bem extreme hard Froft hf 
the Thermometer, and little or no Wind that Day, the Cold has not 
liear fo fenfibly affedled us, as when the Thermometer has (hewed mucK , 
lefs freezing, having a brific Gale of northerly Wind at the fame time. 
This Difftrencc may perhaps b^ occafipned by thofe iharp pointed 
Icicles before mentionttl ftriking more forcibly in a windy Day,' than 
in calm WeatheF> thereby penetrating the naked >kin, or Parts but 
thinly covered, and caufing an acute Senfation of Pain or Cold; And 
the fame Reafon, I think, will hold good in other Places; for (hould 
the wind blow northerly any Thing hard for many Days together in;, 
Snzlanily thf ioicles that would be broughtisoo the Polar^Parts h§r 

^ P V ^ tM.: 

tlie Continuaiicc'of fuch a Wind, though i|npa:cei>tible to the nafce d 
Eye, would more fenfibly af&d the nalcedSkifiy or Parts but (lightly 
covered) than whpi the Thermometer has ihewn a greater Degree of 
freezing, and there has been little or no Wind at the iame Time. 

It is not a little furprizing to many » that fuch extreme Cold ihould 
|x felt in thefe Parts of Amerka^ more than in Places of the iame La- 
titude on the Coafl of Norrauijf ; but the Difterence 1 take to be occafi- 
oi^ed by the Wind blowing conltantlv here, for fevcn Months in the 
tw^lve^ between the north- eail and north weft, and paffingovera 
large Tra£l of Land, and exceeding high Mountains, is^c, as beforp 
mentioned : Whereas as Druftton in Norwqjf] as I obferved fome Years 
|igo in wintering there, the Wind all the Winter comes from tho 
pbrth and north north weft, and crofles a great Part of the Ocean dear 
of thofe largeBodies of Ice we find here perpetually. At this Place we 
have conftantly every Year 9 Months Froft and Snow,and unfufterablo 
Cold from OSiober till the Beginning of M^. In the long Winter, as 
the Air becomes lefs ponderous towards the Polar Parts, and nearer to 
an ^qtdnbrium^ as it happens about one Day in a Week, we then 
have Calms and light Airs all round the Compafs, continuing fometimes 
24 Hours, and then be(ck to its old Place again, in the fame manner 
as it happens every Night in the IVeft- Indies^ near fome of the Iflands. 

The Snow that falls here is as fine as D^'^^ but never any Hail, 
cxcepc at the Beginning and End of Winter, illmo^ every Full and 
Change of the Moon, very hard Gales from the North. 

The conllant Trade Winds in thjfe northern Parts I think undoubt- 
edly to proceed from the fame Principle^ which our learned DrMalUy 
conceives to be the Caufe of the Tr^c Winds near the Equator, and 
their Variations. 

* Wind, fs^yshe, is moft properly defined to be the Stream or 

* Current of the Air ; and where fuch Current is perpetual and fixed 
^'in its Courfe, it is neceflfary, that it proceed from a permanent and 

* unintermitting Caufe, capable of producing a like Conllant EfFedl, 

* and agreeable to the known Properties of Air and Water , and the 

* Laws of Motion of fluid Bodies. Such an one is, I conceive, the 

< Adiion of the Sun's Beams upon the Air and Water as he pafTes 
« every Day over the Oceans, confidered together with the Natureof 

* the Soil and Situation of the adjoining Continents. 1 fay, therefore, 
« firft. That according to the Laws of 5/«//a, the Air which is lefs 
« rarefied or expanded by Heat, and confequently more ponderous, 

< muft have a i\4otion towards thofe Parts thereof which are more 
« rarefied, and lefs ponderous, to bring it to an Equilibrium^ &c. 

Now, that the cold denfe Air, by reafon of its greater Gravity, 
continually prefles ircin tl.cFplar Parts toyj^ards the Equator, where the 
Air js n.ore rarefied, to preferve nu JEquiiibrium or Balance of the 
Atmofplerei I.think, is very evident from^^he Wind in thole frozen 
Regions blowing. from and north. weft, from the Beginning 
of O^oher until M^o 9 ^ox we find that the bun, at the Beginning 
of June^ has ws»rm^ thole Countries to xh^ northwat:ii, th^n ihe 


Ibuth eaft, eaft an^ Variable Winds cohtinoe till OMgr SLpin ; moA I 
do not doubt but thb Trade Winds and hard Gales inajr be found in 
the foiithem Polar Parts to blow towards the Equater^ when thb Sttkl 
is in the northern Signs, from the fame Principle. 

The Limit of thefe Winds from the Polar Parts, towards At Sqttiu 
tor, is fekiom known to reach beyond the ^tJth Deg^^ee ttf Latitude ; 
and the nearer the apprioach to that Limit, the fliorter is the Cohtihu- 
atice of thoTe Winds. In NenvEngiand it blows from tht not'th near 
four Months in the Winter ; at Canada^ about five months i at the 
Z>/i»fi's Settlement in Stnighis Davis, in the 63d. Decree of Latitude, 
liear feven Months ;. on the Coaft oi Norway, in^, toot abov^ j[ 
Months and a half, by reafon of blowing over a great Part of the CJce^ 
an, as was before mentioned ; for thofe northerly Winds 'continue a 
longer or (hbrter Space of Time, according to the Air*s being ftibri^ ot 
kfs rarefied, which may be very probably be altered fcveralfiegrces, 
by theNature of theSoil,and theSitdation of the^djoiningContihfents. 

The vaft Bodies of Ice we meet with in our Paflage fi-oni England to 
Hudfan's Bay, are very furprizing, not only as to their Niimber, but 
Magnitude. It is in Truth unaccountable how they are fbrttied of fo 
great a Bulk, fbme of them being immerfed 100 Fathom or more un- 
der the Surface of the Ocean ; and a fifth or fixth Part aboVb, and 
three or four Miles in Circumference. Some hundreds of thefe we 
fometimes fee in our Voyage here, all in fight at once, if the Weather 
is clear. Some of them are frequently feen on the Coalb and Baliks 
of New/bund/and and New-England, though much diminiihed. 

When I have been becalm^ in Hud/on'' s Stntghts for three or four 
Tides together, I have taken my Boat, and laid clofe to the Side of on^ 
of them, founded, and found 100 Fathom Water all rouikl it. Th^ 
Tide floweth here above four Fathom ; and I have obferved, by marks 
upon k Body of Ice, the Tide to rif^ and fall that Cifierence, which 
was a Certainty of its being aground. Likewife in a Harbour in' the 
liland of Rejolution, where I continued four Days, three of thefe Ifle) 
of Ice (as we call them) came aground. , I founded along by the Side 
of •ne of them, quite round it, and found 32 Fathoin >Arater,and'tlie 
Height above the Surface but ten Yards; another was 28 Fathom un- 
der, and the perpendicular Height but nine Yards above the Water* 

I can in no other manner account for the Aggregation of fuch' l^rge 
Bodies of Ice but this : All along the Coafls of Streigbts Davis, both 
Sides oiBaffins Bay, Hud/on* s S tr eights ^ Anticofly, or Labradore, the^ 
Land is very high and bold, and ico Fathoms, or more, dole to the 
Shore. The Shores have many Inlets or Fuirs, the Cavities of Which 
are filled up with IceandSnow,by the almoil perpetual Winters there^ 
and frozen to the Ground, increafing for four, (ivt, or feven Years^' 
till a kind of Deluge or Land-Hood, which common'y happens in th^ 
Space of Time throughout thefe Parts, breaks them loofe, and launch- 
es them into the Stre:ghts or Ocean, where they are driven about by 
the variable Winds and Currents in the months of June, July, and 
jiuguji, rather incaeafing than diminifhing in Bulk, b^ing furroUnded 


icaioq^ui four or five Points of the Compafi) with fmaller Ice for. 
imunr hundred Leagues, a^ Land coverecl all the Year with Snpw, , 
4he Weather beinr extreme cold, for the moil part, in thofe Summer « 
li^onths. The imallcr Ice that almoft fills the Streigh^ and Bays, 
wd covers nimy Leagues out into the Ocean along th^ Cqaft, is from 
^or to ten Fathom thick, and chills the Air to tfa^it D^ree, that there^ 
is a Gonftant Increafe tp ^he large Ifles by the Sea^ wafliing againi^ 
tbcmy and the perpetual wet Fogs, like fmal) Rain, freezing as they 
fetde upon the Ice ji^ a^d their being fo deeply i^merfed under Watp*^ 
and lack a (mall Fart ^ve, prevents th^ Wind^s having much Pow- 
er to move them • For though it blows from; the north- weift Quarter- 
near nine Months in twelve, and confequently thofe Ifles are driven 
Cowards a warmer Climate, yet the progreflive Motion is (o flow^ tha^ 
it muft take up many Years before they can get five or fix hundred. 
Leagues to the fouthward : I am of Opinion iomc hundreds of Yeara 
are requir*d ; for they cannot, I think diflblve before they come be-r 
tween the 5Qth and 40th Degree of Latitude, where the Heat of the 
Sun confuming the upper Parts, they lighten and wafte in Time : Yet 
there is a perjpettial Supply from the northern Parts, which will fo 
continue as long as it pleafcs thf Av t ho a of all Beings to keep things, 
ui their pref^it State. 

Qh/iroati9H4 ofthi Loi|gJtude, Latitude, and the Declination of tb§ 
Magnetic Needle, ^$ Prince of Wales's Fort„ Churchill River. 

Having oWerved the apparent Tipie pf an Emerson ph. ' " 
f f yupiar's firft SaUiHiftzx Fori Churcffii/^ on Safur- > ^ ' 

daf the aoth of Marci laft ^74 1 -i, at J ^^ ■• 

— J.I . ' i" ^ 

I find the fame Em^c^on happened at London^ by.p h* ' '' . 
Mr. PounJCt 1 abl^^ compared With fome Emersions > g j^ 

actually obfetved ini England near the.fame Time at, j ' 

Whence the horary Dii{erentqof Meridians, beO ^ jq 20 
^een Ftfr^C^ft^^^'// an4.^o«^ff, comes out \ ^ 

Which.converted into Degrees of the £quator,gives 7 o ^q%. ^ 

for the DiHance of the (a^e Meridisina, 


Wherefore, fince the Time at London W49 later in.Deoominatioa 
than that at CimrM/, it follows th^t. according to this Obfervatiop, 
Churchill h 94 Degrees 50 Minutes in^Longitude welt o( London, 

I took feveral octier Obfer varans, which agroed one with another 
tp lefs than a Minute, bat tlys I look upon as the^moft diilindt and 

TheObfervation was made with a goo4i 1 5 Foot refradling Telef- 
cope, and a two Foot Rcfle<5lor of Gr^^(?rys Kind, having a good 
Watch of Mr. Graham's that I could depend upon ; for I have- fre- 
quent Qpportaoicies of difgovering, haw n^uch^ics. Variacion ainou|it^ 


l/b^ 9ipA conftantly found Its daily Deviation or Erroi' to bi i c SiOOBctl 
too (low;by whichMeans it was as ufeful to me for 4|U piikpoies^at if it 
had gone moil conftantly true without any Change. This Watch I 
kept in my Fob in the Day, and in Bed in the Night, to preferre iC 
from the Severity of the Weather; for I obferved, thSt adl other 
Watches were ipoiled by the extreme Cold. 

I have found, from repepeated Obfervations, a Metkod of obtain** 
ing the true Time of the Day at Sea, by taking dght or t^ diffisrent 
Altitudes of the Sun or Stars, when near the the Vrlmt Vertical, by 
Mr. Smithies or Mr. Hadlrfs Quadrant, which I hav^ pra6tifed theUi 
three or four Years paft, and never found from the Calculations, that 
they differed one froni another more than lo or i g Secohds of Timt^ 
, This Certainty of the true Time at Sea is of greater Ufe in thePrac* 
tice of Navigation, than may appear at firft Sight ; for you diereby 
Ikot only get the Variation of the Compafs without the help of Alti* 
lodes, but iikewife the Variation of the Needle from the true Meridi- 
an, every time the Sun or Star is feen to tranfxt the fame. Alfb having 
the true Time of Day or Night, you may be fureof the Meridian Al« 
iitudeof the Son or Star, ifyoa get a Sight 15 or lo Minutes before 
•r after it paiTes the Meridian and the Latitude may be obtained to 
lefs than five Minutes : With feveral other tJies in aftronomical OI> 
iervations ; as the Refraction of the Atmofphere^ and to allow for 
It, by getting the Sun*s apparent RiUng and Setting, which any bod/ 
is capable of doing, and from thenct you will have the Refradion. 

If we had fuch a Telefcope contrived as Mr. ^mltb recommends t« 
be ufed on Shipboard at 5ea, now we can have anexad Knowledge of 
the true Time of the Day or Night from the above Inftruments and 
a good Watch, \ye fhould probably be able to obferve the Edipies of 
the firll Satellite oi Jupiter^ or any other Phwnomin^tt oi tht like Kind 
und thereby find the Diihnto of the Meridians, or Longitude at 
Sea. . 

The Variation of the Magnetic Needte« or Sea-Compafs, obfenr* 
ed by ipCat Cburehill in 1725, (as inN^. 593 of the PbUoJopbical 
^ranjaaiom for the Months of l&arcbtxA April 1726.) was at that 
time north 21 Degrees wefterly, and this ; Winter I have carefully 
ebferved it at the fame Place, and find it no more thaa 17 Degrees* 
fo that it has differed about one Degree in four Years 1 for in 1 738, I 
obferved it here, and found its Declination 18 Degrees weflerly. I 
have carefully obferved, and made proper Allowance for the Sui^^a 
Declination and Refradlion, and find the Latitude here to be $8 De- 
grees 56 ntinutes north : But in moft Parts of the World, where the 
Latitudes are fixed by Sean^en, they are for the moft part fidfly laid 
down, for Want of having j-egard to the Variation of the Sua*s Decli- 
nation, which, computed at a diftant meridian, when the Sun is near 
the Equator, may make a gfeat Error in the Sun*a rifing and fetting 
Aximutbs^ Sec. 

Thefe Thuigs t thought proper to take Notice of , as they may be 
•f Servioe to Navigattffi»-aa4 4io Cyrioii i^ncnni Inguuto* 

( i68 I 

N. B. The foregoing Re/diion leaving been given by Capt* Middletolt 
|0 tbthiti 'worthy frefident of the Royal Society, 5/> Hans Sloanc, 
B^t, he ivas f leafed to communicate the famt to 'the Society, and at 
thtfamt T'ime, as the fur'vi'ving Truftee of the late Sir Godfrey Copley, 
to nominate Caff, Middleton to receive this Tear theprize'medal, giveie 
eumuatly by the Roy a h Society ^ in eonfequemft of Sir Godfrey*/ Be» 
nefaSioni and the fame viat accordingly frefented to the Caftain on Sfm 
AxidjKS^^s Day lafi^ %7^2. ^ 


m fi >iii ■ ' H <i 


Sfverai JBBKEVIAflONS vthicb are madf 
Ufe vfin tbefiUowing Logg Journal* e;(plained. 


Xa. W* at the Top of Col. 2. ilands for Lee Way yihtrt the Niimb<;fri 

exprefs Degrees. 

H. at the Top of Col 3. (lands for Hours. 

K« at the Top of Cel. 4. Hands for Knots. 

F, at the Top of Col. 5. ftands for Furlongs^ for the eighth Part of 4 
Mile. ' 

Sd. Sounded* 

Sqs, Squalls* ' 

A. M. Ante Meridiem^ or in the Morning. 

P. M. Pofi Meridiem^ or in the Evenings 

P. T. 8. Fore Top Sail. 

M. T. S. Main Top Sail. 

X* Longit. DiSerenoe of LongitttdCf 

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